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Poetry

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by

Fiona Campbell

on 22 September 2014

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Transcript of Poetry

End-Stopped Line
Caesuras
Run-On Line
Poetry
Rhythm, Meter, & pattern
Stanzas
Structure
Lines
Continuous
Form
Pattern
Rhythm
Meter
Because I could Not stop for death
Because I could not stop for Death,
He kindly stopped for me;
The carriage held but just ourselves
And Immortality.

We slowly drove; he knew no haste,
And I had put away
My labor and my leisure too
For his civility.

We passed the school, where children strove,
At recess, in the ring,
We passed the fields of grazing grain,
We passed the setting sun,
FOOT
-any wavelike recurrence of motion or sound

-the natural rise and fall of language

-due to alternations between
accented
(stressed) syllables and
unaccented
(unstressed) syllables

-AND
pauses
in speech
Meter
Anacrusis
Metrical variation
Substitution
Extra-metrical Syllables
Stanzaic
Limerick
Italian Sonnet
English Sonnet
Accented/Stressed
When a syllable is given more prominence in pronunciation than the rest.

ex:
IN
dicated, pro
NOUNCE
Iambic
Trochaic
Anapestic
Dactylic
Spondaic
-The final unit of measurement in metrical verse
-consists of a group of lines whose metrical pattern is repeated throughout the poem.

When words are arranged into a sentence, certain words/syllables are given
more stress
than others naturally.

ex: we
WENT
to
GET
some
CO
ffee

Sometimes these accents can
change the meaning
of a sentence

ex: Saying "
I
don't know" draws attention to the fact that the person who doesn't know is "
I
".

Saying "I
DON'T
know" emphasizes the fact that the person doesn't know.
unaccented-accented
Ex: to-DAY, the SUN
accented-unaccented
Ex: DAI-ly, WENT to
unaccented-unaccented-accented
Ex: in-ter-VENE, in the DARK
accented-unaccented-unaccented
Ex: MUL-ti-ple, COL-or of
Two consecutive, accented syllables
Ex: TRUE-BLUE
Replacing the regular foot with a new one in a line. Also known as inversion.
-Syllables added at the
beginning or ends of lines

-Ex:
-Leaving out an unaccented syllable at the beginning of a line

-Ex:
Rhetorical Stresses
When a natural speech pause corresponds with the end of a line in a poem.

ex: like fortitude! What sap
went through that little thread
to make the cherry
red
!

The "
red
" at the end of the section is the natural end of the sentence (due to punctuation) and the end of the line.
Lines follow each other without formal grouping, the only breaks being dictated by units of meaning, as paragraphs are in prose. The element of design is slight
The poem is written in a series of stanzas
-A form where a traditional pattern applies to the whole poem

-In French poetry, there are many (ballades, sestinas, triolets, rondeaus, etc.)

-In English poetry, there are two main fixed forms (Sonnet, Limerick)
When a line ends but there is not a natural pause;
the line feels hurried to the next line.

ex: "Since then, 'tis centuries, and
yet
Feels shorter that the day"
The first line doesn't pause at the end of the line; it
carries over to the next line.
Or rather, he passed us;
The dews drew quivering and chill;
For only gossamer, my gown;
My tippet only tulle.

We paused before a house that seemed
A swelling of the ground;
The roof was scarcely visible.
The cornice, in the ground.

Since then, 'tis centuries, and yet
Feels shorter than the day
I first surmised the horses' heads
Were toward eternity.
-Emily Dickinson
-another basic unit of measurement in metrical verse
-measured by naming the number of feet in them

Monometer = one foot
Dimeter = two feet
Trimeter = three feet
Tetrameter = four feet
Pentameter = five feet
EX: "Ulysses" by Alfred, Lord Tennyson on Page 91 and page 92
"These are the days when the bird comes back"

These are the days when skies put on
The old, old sophistries of June,--
A blue and gold mistake.

Oh, fraud that cannot cheat the bee,
Almost thy plausibility
Induces my belief,

Till ranks of seeds their witness bear,
And softly through the altered air
Hurries a timid leaf!

-Emily Dickinson
Follows an anapestic meter. It has 5 lines and follows an AABBA rhyme scheme. It is used for humorous and nonsense verse.
An epicure dining at Crewe
Anonymous

An epicure, dining at Crewe,
found quite a large mouse in his stew,
said the waiter, “Don’t shout,
and wave it about,
or the rest will be wanting one, too!
-
14
Lines
-First 8 - The
Octave
(Follows abbaabba rhyme scheme)
-Last 6 - The
Sestet
(cdcdcd or cdecde are common rhyme schemes)
On First Looking into Chapman's Homer
By John Keats

Much have I travell'd in the realms of gold,
And many goodly states and kingdoms seen;
Round many western islands have I been
Which bards in fealty to Apollo hold.
Oft of one wide expanse had I been told
That deep-brow'd Homer ruled as his demesne;
Yet did I never breathe its pure serene
Till I heard Chapman speak out loud and bold:
Then felt I like some watcher of the skies
When a new planet swims into his ken;
Or like stout Cortez when with eagle eyes
He star'd at the Pacific—and all his men
Look'd at each other with a wild surmise—
Silent, upon a peak in Darien.
-Also known as a
Shakespearean sonnet
-
14
lines
-composed of three
quatrains
(4 lines) and a concluding
couplet
(2 lines).
-The rhyme scheme is abab cdcd efef gg.
That time of year
By William Shakespeare
That time of year thou mayst in me behold
When yellow leaves, or none, or few, do hang
Upon those boughs which shake against the cold,
Bare ruined choirs, where late the sweet birds sang.

In me thou see’st the twilight of such day
As after sunset fadeth in the west;
Which by and by black night doth take away,
Death’s second self, that seals up all in rest.

In me thou see’st the glowing of such fire,
That on the ashes of his youth doth lie,
As the deathbed whereon it must expire,
Consumed with that which it was nourished by.

This thou perceiv’st, which makes thy love more strong,
To love that well which thou must leave ere long.
The organization and arrangement of words and lines in a poem.
Pattern
-One basic
unit
of meter (the other unit of measurement is the
line
)

-a combination of accented and unaccented syllables

-Duple meters: Iambic, Trochaic
-Triple meters: Anapestic, Dactylic
-Spondaic
Foot
-The basic rhythmic structure of a verse or lines in verse

-When accents are arranged to occur at equal intervals of time
EX: To
be
, or
not
to
be
:
that
is the
quest
ion:

"Hamlet" By William Shakespeare
-Pauses that occur in the middle of lines
-Can be either
grammatical
or
rhetorical
pauses

ex:
(grammatical)
The roof was scarcely visible.
The cornice
,
in the ground.
NOTE
: rhythm is
NOT
the same thing as meter

rhythm
= the flow of actual, pronounced sound

meter
= the patterns that sounds follow when arranged into metrical verse
the arrangement of ideas, images, and thoughts in a poem
the outside symmetry or external pattern of a poem
-same number of lines
-same metrical pattern
-often an identical rime scheme
QUIZ!
1 “We paused before a house that seemed
2 A swelling of the ground;
3 The roof was scarcely visible.
4 The cornice, in the ground.”
QUESTION 1
Which line is a run-on line?
A. line 1
B. line 2
C. line 3
D. line 4

QUESTION 2
1 “We paused before a house that seemed
2 A swelling of the ground;
3 The roof was scarcely visible.
4 The cornice, in the ground.”
Which line contains a caesura?
A. line 1
B. line 2
C. line 3
D. line 4

Which phrase is iambic?
A. to-day, the sun
B. in-ter-vene, in the dark
C. dai-ly went to
D. mul-ti-ple, co-lor of

QUESTION 3
QUESTION 4
Identify the three broad forms of poetry:
A. stanzaic, limerick, sonnet
B. continuous, stanzaic, fixed
C. sonnet, continuous, free verse
D. free verse, blank verse, fixed

QUESTION 5
How many lines are in a sonnet?
A. 12
B. between 10 and 16
C. 14
D. it depends

Fixed


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Full transcript