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DNA

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Abigail Bernabe

on 26 August 2013

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Transcript of DNA

INTRO TO DNA
Valeria Sanchez, Abigail Bernabe
What is DNA?
History
Semiconservative Replication Process
Semiconservative Replication is the normal process of DNA synthesis. involves separating the two parent strands and building a new, complementary replacement strand for each. The new molecules would consist of one parent strand and one new strand.
DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid.
All organisms have DNA; they inherit DNA in the form of chromosomes. Humans have 46 chromosomes, 23 are inherited from their father and 23 from their mother.
DNA has a double helix structure.

Breaking It Down.
All organism are made up of cells.
In the cell, the nucleus is where the chromosomes are stored.
Chromosomes are bundles of DNA strands.
Sections of DNA are called genes. in the genes are codes that tells the body which trait to display.
Prokaryote
Eukaryote
Structure
The structure of DNA can be quite complex however it can be broken down for a better understanding.
DNA has subunits called nucleotides
Each nucleotide is made up of sugar, a phosphate, and a base.
In a DNA molecules there are 4 different bases.
The 4 different bases DNA has are:
(A) Adenine
(G) Guanine
(C) Cytosine
(T) Thymine
These bases are categorized within two groups Purines and pyrimidine.
Adenine and Guanine are purines.
Cytosine and thymine are pyrimidine.
A purine should always be paired with a pyrimidine.
So, adenine and thymine should always be paired together, as well as guanine and cytosine
Rosalind Franklin worked along with Maurice Wilkins. They both had knowledge and experience working with x-ray diffraction and crystallography, a new technology at the time, to study the shape of the DNA molecule.
Rosalind then worked with a student and was able to get two high resolution photos of crystallized DNA fibers with this the basic structure of DNA was known.
In a lecture Franklin presented her findings. James Watson attended the lecture.
James Watson along with Francis Crick had their own theories of the structure of DNA. Since Watson didn't pay much attention to Franklin, Wilkins filled them in on her findings.
Franklin's findings proved Watson and Crick's theories correct.
Watson and Crick created a model of the DNA structure.
Years later Watson, Crick, and Wilkins were awarded the Noble Peace Prize.
The Genome

This is the DNA model that is known, accepted, and used today.
Franklin's X-ray of a DNA molecule.
DNA Replication
DNA replicates by going through a process called semiconservative replication process.
The genome is basically all of the hereditary information that an organism has. So in humans the genome is all 46 pair of chromosomes.
Goodbye!
A prokaryote is a single cell organism so the DNA is not found in a nucleus or bundled into chromosomes, rather it is in the center of the cell and it's called the nucleoid.
Eukaryotes are organisms that have more than one cell. This includes animal and plant cells.. so DNA is in the nucleus like previously stated
Full transcript