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Homosexuality

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by

Ahmed Zaki

on 6 March 2014

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Transcript of Homosexuality

BIOLOGY
History
The Approach
Ethics
Homosexuality-
innate
or
acquired
?




Introduction

What is it?
The trait of being sexually attracted to the same gender.
The problem?
An ongoing, endless problem as many in society do not accept these individuals, believing its 'morally wrong'.
The Debate
- Are these individuals naturally homosexual or is it because of social factors?

This question can be interpreted and discussed from four, different perspectives, using the four different areas of knowledge:

Biology
History
Ethics
Mathematics

Scientific Method

As Biology one of the three 'branches' of natural sciences, it uses the
scientific method

Regarded as an '
objective
standardized approach
Scientists
observe
the investigation

Based on data, they come to conclusions using
logic
and
reason

Animal Case Study: Rams
In the brain of the sheep, scientists discovered an 'oSDN' in male sheep
oSDN= 'an irregularly shaped, densely packed cluster of nerve cells in the hypothalamus of the sheep brain.'

The hypothalamus region controls blood temperature and pressure however, it also controls sexual behavior
During the investigation, researchers found out that the oSDN was larger and contained more neurons in homosexual rams than in heterosexual rams
Similar studies have been conducted on other species, same result
Homosexuality is natural in animals
Research on Humans- The Brain
In recent years, new studies have suggested a natural component in being a homosexual, gay or lesbian.
An investigation, conducted by Dr. Savic and colleagues , researched on the amygdala
'An almond-shaped structure inside each brain hemisphere associated with processing and storing emotions.'
It was found out that in homosexuals, brain activity most closely matched that of heterosexuals of the other sex.
More on Research
Not only was the brain activity of homosexuals similar to heterosexuals of the other sex, the size and shape was found out to also be similar
Gay Men and Straight Women- both hemispheres symmetrical
Lesbians and Straight Men- The right hemisphere was found to be slightly larger than the left
Human Research also strongly suggests a natural component in homosexuality
Other Theories
Prenatal Hormone Theory- states that during birth, just as certain hormones influence fetal sex differentiation, they affect sexual orientation
Birth Order Theory- After each pregnancy, an accumulation of antibodies affect sexual orientation of future fetuses
Desmond Morris
Zoologist, believes social factors affect homosexuality
Four explanations in his book,' The Naked Ape':

1.Mal-imprinting

2.Role of Parents

3.Overpopulation

4.Isolation
In another book called, 'The Naked Man', suggests homosexuals are of a different species to homosexuals
Homosexuality in Ancient Civilizations
Greece
(800 BC)
- Pederasty(sexual activity involving a man and a boy), was a social normality

To the extent that institutions were set up to regulate acts of pederasty


Egypt
-
First homosexual couple 2400 BC
Acts of Pederasty 4500 years ago
However, later on, reproduction was key, homosexuals did not meet this expectation

Rome-
Although had a brief era under the rule of Juvenal (AD 50) where homosexual marriages were legal, much throughout its history have homosexuals been condemned and prohibited
East Asia
-
very common up until the 7th century
writings from Liu Song Dynasty state homosexuality as common as heterosexuality
Homosexuality was confronted in the Tang Dynasty due rising influence of Christianity and Islam



Sources
Following information is based on -

Oral- passed down vocally through the generations
Historical Documents
Personal Publications by philosophers and rulers
Old Paintings
Recent publications by historians
20th Century
-Up until around 20th century, homosexuality in all of its forms were banned and punished by death, against religion, minimal advancement


In Berlin, 'Scientific-Humanitarian Committee' the first public gay rights organization, 1896
First 'gay' magazine established in 1896 'Der Eigene'
First gay demonstration ever took place in Nollendorfplatz in 1922 in Berlin, gathering 400 homosexuals.
In USA, The Society for Human Rights in Chicago becomes the country's earliest known gay rights organization, 1924
Events:
The Liberal Catholic Church, the first religious group to minister openly to lesbians and gays, is founded in Sydney, Australia in 1916.
The first Gay Liberation Day March is held in New York City; The first LGBT Pride Parade is held in New York in 1970
In 1961, Illinois first state to make same-sex marriage legal
In 2001, the Netherlands became the first nation in the world to grant same-sex marriages.
Analysis of Evidence
From ancient civilizations, the mere presence of homosexuals suggest a
natural component
to it

In the 20th century, when nations were turning away from empires and its traditions, a new sense of openness and expression saw great achievements in homosexuality, suggesting a
social factor
Religion
Religion, known by faith, forms the basis of most individuals: their beliefs, character and what they deem as morally 'right' and 'wrong'


Religion defines who we are and what we do, our 'moral' compass
Similarly, every society's standards and laws are based on some form of religion.
Different Religious Perspectives
Islam
-

-23.2% of world population follow this religion
-It clashes with the natural order in which God created human beings
-The Qur'an shares stories which are meant to teach people valuable lessons.
-Valuable lesson from Story of Lut- homosexuality is not prohibited




Christianity-

- 31.5% of world population
-In the Bible, it states 'shameful' acts are prohibited and not allowed
-Mentioned in the Old Testament- those who commit such acts have committed an abomination
-However, recently, Gay Affirming Churches have been set up

More Religious Perspectives
Hinduism

-15% of the world's population follow this religion
- A very balanced view on homosexuality
-Does not address directly the issue, it is neither promoted or condemned, but considered a 'taboo' subject
-Neutral Stance


Buddhism


-Consist of 7.1% of world population
-Buddhist monk not allowed to be homosexual
- Because homosexual acts are the cause of serious physical and mental health problems. This fact violates the Buddhist teaching to harm no living creature.
- Different schools of thought, some deem it as 'natural' whilst others
deem as unnatural
-Due to contradicting Buddhist rules and guidelines
Global Acceptance of Homosexuality

-Most of the red region contains conservative, religious nations
-Death Penalty
-Those who accept, only 15 countries allow legal marriage

Malleable Ethics
- In the 18th century, homosexuality was a crime and punishable by death

-In 19th century, first public gay rights organization set up in Berlin

-In the 20th century, a majority of western and european nations legalize homosexuality

-In the 21st century, as of February 23, 2014, 15 countries allow same-sex couples to marry.

-In the 22nd century, who knows?





Mathematics
Statistics
According to the latest census , conducted in 2008, about 10% of the world is homosexual

That is roughly 750 million individuals who are homosexual

Furthermore, this does not take into account homosexuals that keep their orientation secret due to the social atmosphere they are in (e.g. religious countries)

1 out of every 10 individuals are homosexual

7.0 % are gay

3.0% are lesbians

Global Acceptance of Homosexuality Change
Current Statistics show homosexuals as a minority, suggesting
unnatural
component
Change in Attitude Towards Homosexuality
-Decreasing at an exponential rate
-By the year 2040, there will be no countries, including conservative countries, where homosexuality is a crime
Rising Number of Homosexuals
-By 2040, 35 % of world population will be gay
-At this rate, by 2100, 50% of the world population will be gay
-No longer a minority, same as heterosexual
- However, number of gays increasing just as population as increasing
- Reliability of source is unknown but graph is interesting
Statistics and demographics show a
social factor
involved in the sexual orientation of individuals
-However, estimates suggests an emergence of a new 'homosexual' species, denoting a
natural factor
in homosexuality

- Today, the statistics show homosexuals as a minority sector of society

- But at the rate of growth, homosexuals will not
remain a minority, and will alter the ethics of
homosexuality
Analysis
Homosexuality shall forever remain a controversial topic that will continue to spur controversy
The focal question shall remain to produce dividend answers, this presentation serves to be better able to answer this question
Full transcript