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Freud's Psychosexual stages

Freud's 5 Psychosexual stages of child development.
by

Kate Thomson

on 27 March 2014

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Transcript of Freud's Psychosexual stages

FREUD'S PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES
Anal
The anal stage is the second stage in Freud's theory of Psychosexual phases
It last from about 18 months to 3 years of age
During this stage libido pleasure comes from the focusing on the control of the bowel and bladder
The major conflict at this stage is toilet training as the child has to learn to control his or her bodily needs
Developing this control leads to a sense of accomplishment and independence
Phallic
The third of Freud's Psychosexual is the phallic stage
The stage generally starts around the age of three and last until around the age of five
In this period children's libido focus is the genitals and children begin to determine the difference between males and females
Latency
The latency stage is the fourth of Freud's Psychosexual stages
The stage begins at around five and lasts until puberty
Throughout this period the child has dormant sexual feelings - the libido interests are suppressed
The development of the ego and the superego contribute to this period of calm
This period is a time in which sexual energy is present, however, it is directed into other areas such as intellectual pursuits and social interactions
This stage is important in the development of social and communication skills and self-confidence
Genital
Genital is the fifth and final stage of Freud's theory of Psychosexual stages
It ranges from the begining of puberty through adulthood until death
During this final stage the individual develops a strong sex interest in the opposite sex
All sexual conflicts that were had throughout childhood become apparent in this phase
Oral
The oral stage is the first of Freud's five Psychosexual theory stages
This stage lasts from birth to around 18 months
During this stage, the infant's primary source of interaction occurs through the mouth
The mouth is vital for eating and the infant derives pleasure from oral stimulation through gratifying activities such as biting, sucking and chewing
This concept is based on the fact that infants use there mouths for everything
Because the infant is entirely dependent upon caretakers (who are responsible for feeding the child), the infant also develops a sense of trust and comfort through this oral stimulation
Beliefs
The primary conflict in this stage is the weaning process as the child must become less dependent upon care givers
Freud believed that weaning too early/quickly could lead to an adult being aggressive and/or pessimistic
There is also the belief that if fixation occurs at this stage and one is weaned too late the individual would have issues with dependency or aggression
Oral fixation can result in problems with drinking, eating, smoking and nail biting.
Success
Success at this stage is dependent upon the way in which parents approach training
Parents who utilize praise and rewards for using the toilet at the appropriate time and encourage positive outcomes help the children feel the necessary positive development
Freud believed that the positive experiences during this stage served as the basis for people to become competent, productive and creative adults
Failure
Unfortunatley, not all parents provide the support and encouragement that is necessary during this time of development
Some parents', instead of praising good efforts, punish, ridicule or shame a child for accidents
According to Freud, inappropriate parental responses can result in negative outcomes
If parents take an approach that is too lenient, Freud suggested that an anal-expulsive personality could develop in which the individual has a messy, wasteful or destructive personality
If parents are too strict or begin toilet training too early, Freud believed that an anal-retentive personality develops in which the individual is stringent, orderly, rigid and obsessive
Oedipus Complex
Freud believed that boys begin to view their fathers as a rival for the mother’s affections
The child has feelings of wanting to possess the mother and the desiring to replace the father
The child also fears that he will be punished by the father for these feelings, a fear Freud termed castration anxiety
Electra Complex
Freud believed that girls had a similar feeling towards the father
However, Freud believed that girls also experienced penis envy
The end of the Phallic stage
Eventually, the child begins to identify with the same-sex parent as a means of vicariously possessing the other parent
For girls, however, Freud believed that penis envy was never fully resolved and that all women remain somewhat fixated on this stage
Bibliography
Cherry, K 2014,
Freud's Stages of Psychosexual Development
, viewed 22 March 2014, <http://psychology.about.com/od/theoriesofpersonality/ss/psychosexualdev_6.htm>
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