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The Boxing Day and Japanese Earthquakes and Tsunamis

A comparison of the Japanese and Boxing Day Earthquakes and Tsunamis. A Geo presentation by Matt Oliver and Rutherford.
by

matthew rutherford

on 14 November 2012

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Transcript of The Boxing Day and Japanese Earthquakes and Tsunamis

And EARTHQUAKES TSUNAMIS Boxing day 2004 A Magnitude 9.3 quake triggered a huge tsunami that devastated the countries of Asia. On boxing day 2004 a huge 9.2 magnitude quake created a tsunami so powerful that it devastated the continent of Asia In Indonesia, 168,000 people were killed by the tsunami, and an estimated 500,000 were left homeless. The casualties were not limited to Asia alone. It actually killed many tourists as well as natives. In fact, Australia lost 26 people to the disaster. The wave travelled at speeds of up to 500 km/h. Faster than a jumbo jet and 1500 times more powerful than a nuclear explosion. It was caused by the movement of the Indian and Burmese Plates. The Indian plate subducted under the Burmese plate until the pressure became too high and a huge seismic wave was produced. The first waves that were sent out were 'p' waves which were harmless but provided early warning for some nations like Japan who had intricate detection systems which picked up these waves and warned everyone an earthquake was iminent LEDC's like Indonesia however had no such warning and so the scale of the damage was far worse.
Thousands died and homes were completley destroyed. 5 billion dollars of damage in total, it left the entire country in a crisis. Indonesia's capital Aceh was worst hit because it was right next to the epicentre of the quake Japan Tsunami 2011 The cause of the earthquake? Earthquakes appear where tectonic plates grind together. Where they meet is called the fault. The sheer force of the friction causes the pressure to rise, reaching astronomical amounts. The earthquake occurs when this pressure is finally released. The point of origin, where the earthquake starts is called the focus and the area just above that is the epicentre. seismic waves are sent speeding off from the focus. But what caused the tsunami? As the two tectonic plates were grinding together the Pacific plate slid under the North American plate forcing it to jolt upwards. This sudden movement caused the tsunami by lifting the ocean floor and the massive amount of sea water above it. When the tsunami reached land, the shallow water caused the height of the tsunami to increase. The waves were forced to push inland because of the amount of water and energy that has built up behind them. The consequences? Destroyed Homes Estimates suggest that many thousands of animals also died. In excess of 18,000 people. Loss of Life Loss of Industry Damage to the environment Crops Destroyed – loss of food production Earth knocked off its axis Radiation sickness and cancers more likely because of Fukushima leaks The Japan Tsunami of 2011 measured at 8.9 on the richter scale and managed to create havoc within one of the world's most developed countries Sendai was one of the worst hit areas in Japan because it was nearest to the centre of the quake. Whilst early warning systems helped by detecting initial p waves, Sendai did not have much time to react. Less than 15 minutes to evacuate the town for the certain destruction that was to follow. Within the first 2 hours 400 were killed The total death toll for the whole of Japan was over 18,000 The two earthquakes caused unimaginable amounts of damage to people and the environment. The fact of the matter is, we cannot combat the brutal force of nature And tragic events like these two are certain to happen again. To compare the two quakes. They were similar in size and magnitude although their effects were felt differently due to economic imbalance. The effects of The Boxing Day Tsunami were felt more than those of the Japan quake because Japan had the technology to predict the quake and evacuate its residents. In Indonesia, however, they had no such warning. The residents had no idea that the tsunami was coming. They also had no education in earthquakes which meant that they didn't know that a huge wave was to follow. Indonesia and the other LEDC's that were hit couldn't afford protective measures to reduce loss of life. They also couldn't afford the repair costs so the recovery was a much more lengthy process. This has the possibility of incurring more debt. In Conclusion The responses to the Boxing Day Tsunami were drastic. $14 billion was raised internationally to help the countries affected. 275,000 were killed in total. Over 600,000 homes in Aceh were destroyed. $130,000,000 dollars was given to Japan by corporate donation. All countries in the UN helped Japan by giving them aid. This ranged from monetary aid to rescue dog teams (sent by the UK).
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