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APUSH Slavery DBQ
Transcript of APUSH Slavery DBQ
I do require every Person capable of bearing Arms, to [resort] to His MAJESTY’S STANDARD, or be looked upon as Traitors to His MAJESTY’S Crown and Government. . . . And I do hereby further declare all indentured Servants, Negroes, or others, ([belonging] to Rebels,) free that are able and willing to bear Arms, they joining His MAJESTY’S Troops as soon as may be, for the more speedily reducing this Colony to a proper Sense of their Duty, . . . Source: Paul Cuffe’s Petition, Massachusetts, 1780.
. . . by Reason of long bondage and hard Slavery we have been deprived of enjoying the profits of our labor or the advantage of inheriting estates from our parents as our neighbors the white people do . . . & yet . . . we are not allowed the privilege of freemen of the State having no vote or influence in the election of those that tax us . . . yet many of our Color (as is well known) have cheerfully entered the field of battle in the defense of the Common cause and that (as we conceive) against a similar exertion of power (in regard to taxation) too well known to need a recital in this place. Slavery in America had begun long before 1775 but during this time slaves became more important and necessary because of the Revolutionary War and the need for soldiers. As time progressed the Southern half of the country's need for slaves also increased and world demand for cotton reached new heights, however, the North no longer needed slaves when the first industrial revolution hit in the beginning of the 19th century. Free and enslaved black reactions to the challenges that faced them often revolved around faith, something whites could not take away, some tried and succeeded in purchasing their freedom, while others petitioned and called each other to action, for a change From 1775 to 1830, many African Americans gained freedom from slavery, yet during the same period the institution of slavery expanded. Explain why BOTH of those changes took place. Analyze the ways that BOTH free African Americans and enslaved African Americans responded to the challenges confronting them. African American Freedom and Slavery in early America 1775 to 1830 By:
Diana and Roxanne Source: Absalom Jones and Richard Allen, Philadelphia, 1794.
There is much gratitude due from our color towards the white people, very many of them are instruments in the hand of God for our good, even such as have held us in captivity, are now pleading our cause with earnestness and zeal; . . . much depends upon us for the help of our color more than we are aware; if we are lazy and idle, the enemies of freedom plead it as a cause why we ought not to be free, and say we are better in a state of servitude, and that giving us our liberty would be an injury to us, and by such conduct we strengthen the bands of oppression, and keep many in bondage who are more worthy than ourselves. DOCUMENT E Source: The Confessions of “Ben,” a conspirator in Gabriel Prosser’s Rebellion, 1800.
. . . Mr. Prosser’s Gabriel wished to bring on the business as soon as possible. Gilbert said the summer was almost over, and he wished them to enter upon the business before the weather got too cold. Gabriel proposed that the subject should be referred to his brother Martin to decide upon. Martin said there was this expression in the Bible, delays breed danger; at this time, he said, the country was at peace, the soldiers were discharged, and the arms all put away; there was no patrolling in the country, and that before he would any longer bear what he had borne, he would turn out and fight with his stick. . . . I read in my Bible where God says if we will worship Him we should have peace in all our land; five of you shall conquer a hundred, and a hundred a thousand of our enemies . . . DOCUMENT G DOCUMENT F Source: Venture Smith’s Narrative, 1798.
I asked my master one time if he would consent to have me purchase my freedom. He replied that he would. I was then very happy, knowing that I was at that time able to pay part of the purchase money by means of the money which I had some time buried. . . . What was wanting in redeeming myself, my master agreed to wait on me for, until I could procure it for him. . . . There was continually some interest accruing on my master’s note to my friend, the free negro man above named, which I received, and with some besides, which I got by fishing, I laid out in land adjoining my old master Stanton’s. By cultivating this land with the greatest diligence and economy, at times when my master did not require my labor, in two years I had laid up ten pounds. Source: Letter to ministers from the Vermont Colonization Society, 1820.
The Managers of the Vermont Colonization Society . . . proposed to the Inhabitants of this State, a general contribution [of] . . . one cent only, from each inhabitant of the State. . . . By promoting this contribution, you will give efficient aid to a Society, whose benevolent object is, by establishing colonies on the coast of Africa, to open a door for the gradual emancipation of the slaves in our own country, to impose an effectual barrier against the continuance of the slave trade, and ultimately to extend the blessings of civilization, and of the christian religion, throughout the vast and hitherto benighted regions of Africa. DOCUMENT H Source: Prince Hall, African American leader in Boston and founder of the African Masonic movement,
[(B)lacks must] bear up under the daily insults we meet with in the streets of Boston, much more on public days of recreation. How at such times are we shamefully abused, and that to such a degree, that we may truly be said to carry our lives in our hands, and the arrows of death are flying about our heads. Helpless women have their clothes torn from their backs . . . [and] twenty or thirty cowards have fallen upon one man.
Source: Hosea Easton, an African American living in Boston, 1820s.
. . . cuts and placards descriptive of the Negro deformity, are every where displayed. . . . Many of the popular book stores, in commercial towns and cities, have their show windows lined with them. The barrooms of the most popular public houses in the country, sometimes have their ceiling literally covered with them. This display of American civility is under the daily observation of every class of society, even in New England. DOCUMENT I DOCUMENT J Source: David Walker, Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World, 1829.
For my own part, I am glad Mr. Jefferson has advanced his positions for your sake; for you will either have to contradict or confirm him by your own actions, and not by what our friends have said or done for us; for those things are other men’s labors, and do not satisfy the Americans, who are waiting for us to prove to them ourselves that we are MEN, before they will be willing to admit the fact; for I pledge you my sacred word of honor, that Mr. Jefferson’s remarks respecting us, have sunk deep into the hearts of millions of the whites, and never will be removed this side of eternity.—For how can they, when we are confirming him every day, by our groveling submissions and treachery?
Remember Americans, that we must and shall be free and enlightened as you are, will you wait until we shall, under God, obtain our liberty by the crushing arm of power? Will it not be dreadful for you? I speak, Americans, for your good. We must and shall be free I say, in spite of you. You may do your best to keep us in wretchedness and misery, to enrich you and your children; but God will deliver us from you. And woe, woe, will be to you if we have to obtain our freedom by fighting. Slavery in the United States DOCUMENT D Source: Negro Methodist Meeting in Philadelphia, 1790s. Comprehension Statement: In his 1775 proclamation Lord Dunmore states in a direct tone that every black person who enlists in the British military to fight in the Revolutionary War could gain freedom. He specifies his call to African Americans because he knew that the one thing they desired was freedom and they would do whatever it took to attain it, including fighting in the war. Comprehension Statement: BREAKING DOWN THE PROMPT: "Explain": Explain why BOTH of those changes took place "Analyze": This part of the essay is requiring you to use outside information and your knowledge of the time period. Analyze the ways that BOTH free African Americans and enslaved African Americans responded to the challenges confronting them. COMPREHENSION STATEMENT: COMPREHENSION STATEMENT: COMPREHENSION STATEMENT: COMPREHENSION STATEMENT: COMPREHENSION STATEMENT: Time Period OUTSIDE INFORMATION: FIRST PART OF PROMPT: Reason for changes Outside Information OUTSIDE INFORMATION OUTSIDE INFORMATION Here you can actually use the Documents and the information they provide you with Missouri Compromise was enacted (slavery banned north of 36˚30’ North latitude in the Louisiana Purchase Territory; Maine entered as free state, Missouri entered as slave state). Outside Information: Great Compromise: an agreement between large and small states reached during the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that defined legislative structure and representation that each state would have. It gave one part equal representation and another proportional. three-fifths of the population of slaves would be counted for representation purposes regarding both the distribution of taxes and the apportionment of the members of the United States House of Representatives. (also 1878) 3/5's Compromise The North was experiencing the First Industrial Revolution The Southern Half of the country was experiencing the expansion of the cotton industry which fueled their economy They did not need slaves because of the first surge of immigrants The cotton industry expanded and awoke the institution of slavery Religion Freedom D G J H Petitions/Call to Action A I E F B 1778 Rhode Island offered freedom for slaves who fought in the Revolution. Colonists initially banned African Americans; some colonies offered freedom to slaves who fought for the colonial cause. Enlistment of Blacks • Some colonies offered freedom for slaves who fought for the colonial cause. • Free African Americans were denied property rights. • Initial enfranchisement of African Americans. gradual emancipation laws in the North upper/lower South King Cotton Whitney, Eli World Demand for Cotton Increased Industrial Revolution in the North African American Baptist Church mutual aid societies Church activities were important to African Americans Second Great Awakening Religion offered a sense of hope The painting portrays a northern African American Methodist church gathering which is shows the impact religion had on the black population. It is imperative to note that the people in the painting are all black which leads me to beleive that one of the reactions African Americans had to the hardships they were faced with was turning to religion, that which they have control over. These maps of the United States show the chages that occurred within the nation over a 40 year time period. It shows how the North's slavery percentage has decreased and even been eliminated because factories didn't really need slaves to do hard labor and because slaves were emancipated. The South however has increased very very much because of the increased demand of slaves to work the cotton fields to feed world demand. This accurately shows why slaves and free African Americans faced different challenges. Absalom Jones and Richard Allen speak to the black community in Philadelphia about how white supremacy is based off of them believing that blacks are naturally lazy and need to be controlled for their own good but he calls them to action against the injustices they are submitted to because they believe the opposite. They believe that the key to freedom is not found in the logic of the white man but in their rising against the norms they have been put under. In his narrative Venture Smith tells of the time when he asked his master to purchase his own freedom and of the events that lead to the earnings which allowed for him to purchase it. He retells this story in an enthusiastic tone which shows how he appreciated his master and his patience and most importantly his enthusiasm for freedom. COMPREHENSION STATEMENT: COMPREHENSION STATEMENT: The author of "Letter to ministers from the Vermont Colonization Society" speaks in an urgent tone of the needs to better the black community not only within the United States but outside the country, in Africa, because he believes that gradual help will eventually lead to the emancipation of blacks. Here religion is also used as a unifying factor since religion is not something tangible rather spiritual they are able to offer it to those far away and use it to unify those already in the country. OUTSIDE INFORMATION: Moderate Abolitionists American Colonization Society (back to Africa) OUTSIDE INFORMATION: Some slaves purchased their freedom. Not all slave owners were averse to slaves being free. Manumission To free from bondage or slavery; to emancipate G Ben, a conspirator in Gabriel Prosser's rebellion, confesses details of the 1800 slave revolt including the biblical allusions used in order to motivate slaves to join them as well as the plans they made when deciding when to move their revolt to Richmond because they believed that using biblical references would serve as the final push towards getting followers. COMPREHENSION STATEMENT: OUTSIDE INFORMATION: Fugitive Slave Law, 1793 slave codes/Black Codes Slave revolts 1800, A literate black slave that lived in the Richmond area launched a large scale slave revolt. Governor Monroe quickly crushed the rebellion. Gabriel Prosser's Rebellion The authors, Prince Hall and Hosea Easton, speak in an infuriated tone of the extreme discrimination they face daily in the Northern city of Boston where they live as free men. This shows how although African Americans in the North weren't enslaved they were, like those in the south who were slaves, treated very harshly. The two men tell of violence and racism because they want to verbally call others to action in order to end the inequality. In an urgent tone Paul Cuffe speaks to the black northern population of the inequality and discrimination they are facing. He compares the rights that white people have to those they are not allowed because by speaking out the truth people are allowed to think of it instead of simply live it and brush it off and eventually rise up against discrimination. OUTSIDE INFORMATION: Some white abolitionists advocated freeing slaves and relocating them to Africa. banning of foreign slave trade Back o Africa Movement (Colonization movement) American Colonization Society In Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World, 1826, David Walker furiously speaks directly to the white Americans who treat slaves as slaves and not like humans. He tells them and blacks alike that they will be free and that God will deliver them, like he delivered his people from the Egyptians through Moses who set them free. This biblical allusion proves powerful because at this time blacks and whites alike were fervent believers. This sparks a rebel fire in blacks to stand against the challenges they face. Outside Information: Radical and Moderate Abolitionism: Radical : immediate emancipation for slaves Moderate: gradual emancipation Religion and its impact on the life of both slaves and freemen alike The issue of sectional balance: The South wanted slavery but the north did not Both feared that if one was stronger than the other the balance in Congress would be offset The issue of slavery was the defining factor which was cause for debate As a result of Eli Whitney's invention of the cotton gin in 1793 The Second Part of the Prompt Bring together the reactions that BOTH free and enslaved African Americans had to the challenges they faced Think about the issues they faced Violent attacks, enslavement, discrimination, etc. Then read the documents and find patterns Example: Religion