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Transcript of Conditionals

The First Conditional
We use the first conditional to talk about something that will happen
(the result), if a particular condition (which is likely to happen)
is met.
When we use will in the result clause of the first conditional, we
are certain that something will happen. It is definite . But we can use
may or might instead of will. This means that the consequence is possible, but not definite

If + present simple + Will or may/might

If I see Mary I will tell her.
If Tara is free tomorrow he will invite her.
If they do not pass their exam their teacher will be sad.
If it rains tomorrow will you stay at home?
If it rains tomorrow what will you do?
IF condition
If + present simple
If + present simple
WILL + base verb
IF condition
WILL + base verb

I will tell Mary if I see her.
He will invite Tara if she is free tomorrow.
Their teacher will be sad if they do not pass their exam.
Will you stay at home if it rains tomorrow?
What will you do if it rains tomorrow?
Sometimes, we use shall, can, or may instead of will, for example:

"If you are good today, you can watch TV tonight."
We are talking about the future. We are thinking about a particular condition or situation in the future, and the result of this condition. There is a real possibility that this condition will happen. For example, it is morning. You are at home. You plan to play tennis this afternoon. But there are some clouds in the sky. Imagine that it rains. What will you do?
If it rains I will stay at home.
Notice that we are thinking about a future condition. It is not raining yet. But the sky is cloudy and you think that it could rain. We use the present simple tense to talk about the possible future condition. We use WILL + base verb to talk about the possible future result. The important thing about the first conditional is that there is a real possibility that the condition will happen. Here are some more examples (do you remember the two basic structures: [IF condition result] and [result IF condition]?)
Possible variations of the basic form
Sometimes instead of if + present + future, we may have:

a) if + present + may/might (possibility)

If the climate keeps warming, the Arctic might be warm enough for swimming.

b) if + present + may (permission) or can (permission or ability)

If your documents are in order, you may/can leave at once. (permission)
If it stops raining, we can go out." (permission or ability)
Variations of the if-clause
Instead of if + present tense, we can have:

a) if + present continuous, to indicate a present action or a future arrangement."

If you are waiting for a bus (present action), you'd better join the queue.
If you are looking for Peter, you'll find him upstairs.
If you're staying for another night (future arrangement), I'll ask the manager to give you a better room.

b) if + present perfect

if you have finished dinner, I'll ask the waiter for the bill.
If he has written the letter, I'll post it.
If they haven't seen the museum, we'd better go there today.
1. Johana is such a hard-working student. If she studies hard, she...

[ ] a. will to pass all her school exams.
[ ] b. will passed all her school exams.
[ ] c. will pass all her school exams.
1. Johana is such a hard-working student. If she studies hard, she...

[ ] a. will to pass all her school exams.
[ ] b. will passed all her school exams.
[x] c. will pass all her school exams
2. If Jane passes her exams, her mother...

[ ] a. won't be happy.
[ ] b. will be happy.
[ ] c. will to be happy.
c) if + present + must, should or any expression of command, request or advice

if you want to look slim, you must/should eat less meat.
if you want to look slim, you had better eat less meat.
if you want to look slim, eat less meat.

d) When if is used to mean as/since, a variety of tenses can be used in the main clause
2. If Jane passes her exams, her mother...
[ ] a. won't be happy.
[x] b. will be happy.
[ ] c. will to be happy.
If Johana becomes lazy at school, her mother...
[ ] a. will be happy.
[ ] b. may be happy.
[ ] c. will to be happy.
[x] d. won't be happy.
4. If it rains tomorrow morning, we...
[ ] a. will to take our umbrellas.
[ ] b. won't take our umbrellas.
[x] c. will take our umbrellas
5. If you eat too much junk food, you ...
[ ] a. will become thinner.
[x] b. will become fatter.
[ ] c. will to become fatter
6. If you don't finish your homework, your teacher...
[x] a. won't be happy.
[ ] b. will be happy.
[ ] c. will to be angry.
7. I'll come to the cinema,..
[x] a. after I finish my homework.
[ ] b. when I'm finishing my homework.
[ ] c. after I don't finish my homework.
8. Kisi won't come to the party, ...
[ ] a. if you invite him.
[x] b. if you don't invite him.
[ ] c. if you to invite him
9. If you don't work hard at school,...
[ ] a. your mother will buy you a present.
[x] b. your mother won't buy you a present.
[ ] c. your mother may buy you a present.
10. You won't get paid,...
[ ] a. if you go to work.
[x] b. unless you go to work.
[ ] c. if not you go to work.
Well done! That was the first.....
Now onto the second
The Second Conditional
The Second Conditional refers to an unreal (or very unlikely)
situation in the PRESENT time. The most confusing thing about
the second conditional is that we use the PAST TENSE in the
"if" clause, even though we’re referring to the PRESENT!
Consider the following examples:
If I were rich, I would travel all over the world."

This means I am not rich at the PRESENT.
Full transcript