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Blood Diseases Prezi
Transcript of Blood Diseases Prezi
cells that assume an abnormal, rigid, sickle shape. Anemia Blood Diseases There are 5 main diseases related to Blood and Blood cells. Polycythemia Leukemia Leukemia is a type of cancer of the blood or bone marrow characterized by an abnormal increase of immature white blood cells called "blasts". Thalasemia Thalassemia are forms of inherited autosomal recessive blood disorders that originated in the Mediterranean region. In thalassemia, the disease is caused by the weakening and destruction of red blood cells. Thalassemia is caused by variant or missing genes that affect how the body makes hemoglobin.Thalassemia can cause significant complications, including pneumonia, iron overload, bone deformities and cardiovascular illness. Anemia is the most common disorder of the blood. It is a decrease in number of red blood cells (RBCs) or less than the normal quantity of hemoglobin in the blood. Because hemoglobin (found inside RBCs) normally carries oxygen from the lungs to the capillaries, anemia leads to hypoxia (lack of oxygen) in organs. Anemia goes undetermined in many people, and symptoms can be minor or vague.Most commonly, people with anemia report feelings of weakness, or fatigue, general malaise, and sometimes poor concentration. In severe anemia, there may be signs of a hyperdynamic circulation: tachycardia (a fast heart rate), bounding pulse, flow murmurs, and cardiac ventricular hypertrophy (enlargement). There may also be signs of heart failure. Symptoms of Anemia Causes of Anemia The most common reasons of anemia are blood loss, iron deficiency, poor nourishment, deficiency of B9 and B12 and genetic inheritance. Treatments 1. Oral Iron -Anemia is treated by oral iron supplementation with ferrous sulfate, ferrous fumarate, or ferrous gluconate
2.Parenteral Iron-In cases where oral iron has either proven ineffective, would be too slow or where absorption is impeded (for example in cases of inflammation), parenteral iron can be used.
3.Blood Transfusion - Doctors attempt to avoid blood transfusion in general.Blood does have risks associated, such as disease transmission and host incompatibility, even in cases where cross matching was correctly undertaken.
4.Hyperbaric oxygen - The use of HBO is indicated when oxygen delivery to tissue is not sufficient in patients who cannot be given blood transfusions for medical or religious reasons. Sickle-cell disease occurs more commonly among people whose ancestors lived in tropical and sub-tropical sub-Saharan regions where malaria is or was common. Where malaria is common, carrying a single sickle-cell gene confers a fitness. Specifically, humans with one of the two alleles of sickle-cell disease show less severe symptoms when infected with malaria Inheritance
Sickle-cell conditions are inherited from parents in much the same way as blood type, hair color and texture, eye color, and other physical traits. The types of haemoglobin a person makes in the red blood cells depend on what haemoglobin genes are inherited from his parents. If one parent has sickle-cell anemia (SS) and the other has sickle-cell trait then there is a 50% chance of a child's having sickle-cell disease and a 50% chance of a child's having sickle-cell trait. When both parents have sickle-cell trait a child has a 25% chance of sickle-cell disease, as shown in the diagram. Transfusion therapy
Blood transfusions are often used in the management of sickle cell disease in acute cases and to prevent complications by decreasing the number of red blood cells (RBC) that can sickle by adding normal red blood cells.
Bone marrow transplants
Bone marrow transplants have proven to be effective in children. Bone marrow transplants are the only known cure for SCD Ways of curing this disease. Polycythemia is a disease state in which the proportion of blood volume that is occupied by red blood cells increases.It can be due to an increase in the number of red blood cells ("absolute polycythemia") or to a decrease in the volume of plasma ("relative polycythemia"). Absolute polycythemia
The overproduction of red blood cells may be due to a primary process in the bone marrow, or it may be a reaction to chronically low oxygen levels or, rarely, a malignancy. Alternatively, additional red blood cells may have been received through another process--for example, being over-transfused or being the recipient twin in a pregnancy-undergoing twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. Relative polycythemia
Relative polycythemia is an apparent rise of the erythrocyte level in the blood; however, the underlying cause is reduced blood plasma. Relative polycythemia is often caused by loss of body fluids, such as through burns, dehydration and stress. Rarely, relative polycythemia can be caused by apparent polycythemia also known as Gaisböck syndrome. Apparent polycythemia primarily affects middle-aged obese men and is associated with smoking, increased alcohol intake and hypertension. Treatement The emergency treatment of polycythemia is by venesection, the removal of blood from the circulation.
Whenever venesection is not effective than Cytostasis is used. Cytostatic refers to a cellular component or medicine that inhibits cell growth. Classification Clinically and pathologically, leukemia is subdivided into a variety of large groups. The first division is between its acute and chronic forms: 1.Acute leukemia is characterized by a rapid increase in the number of immature blood cells. Crowding due to such cells makes the bone marrow unable to produce healthy blood cells. Immediate treatment is required in acute leukemia .Acute leukemia mostly occurs in children. 2.Chronic leukemia is characterized by the excessive build up of relatively mature, but still abnormal, white blood cells. Typically taking months or years to progress, the cells are produced at a much higher rate than normal, resulting in many abnormal white blood cells. Whereas acute leukemia must be treated immediately, chronic forms are sometimes monitored for some time before treatment to ensure maximum effectiveness of therapy. Chronic leukemia mostly occurs in older people Symptoms of Leukemia Causes There is no single known cause for any of the different types of leukemia. The different leukemias likely have different causes. Leukemia, like other cancers, results from mutations in the DNA.These mutations may occur spontaneously or as a result of exposure to radiation or carcinogenic substances.
Among adults, the known causes are natural and artificial ionizing radiation, a few viruses such as human T-lymphotropic virus, and some chemicals, notably benzene and alkylating chemotherapy agents.
Also children born to mothers who use fertility drugs to induce ovulation are more than twice as likely to develop leukemia during their childhoods than other children. Treatement
Most forms of leukemia are treated with pharmaceutical medication, typically combined into a multi-drug chemotherapy regimen. Some are also treated with radiation therapy. In some cases, a bone marrow transplant is useful. Alpha thalassemias
The thalassemias involve the genes HBA1 and HBA2, inherited in a Mendelian recessive fashion. Beta thalassemias
Beta thalassemias are due to mutations in the HBB gene on chromosome 11, also inherited in an autosomal-recessive fashion. Causes Both αAlpha and Betaβ thalassemias are often inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion.For the autosomal recessive forms of the disease, both parents must be carriers in order for a child to be affected. If both parents carry a hemoglobinopathy trait, there is a 25% risk with each pregnancy for an affected child.
There are an estimated 60-80 million people in the world carrying the beta thalassemia trait alone Complications 1.Iron overload: People with thalassemia can get an overload of iron in their bodies, either from the disease itself or from frequent blood transfusions. Too much iron can result in damage to the heart, liver and endocrine system
2.Infection: people with thalassemia have an increased risk of infection. This is especially true if the spleen has been removed.
3.Bone deformities: Thalassemia can make the bone marrow expand, which causes bones to widen. This can result in abnormal bone structure, especially in the face and skull. Bone marrow expansion also makes bones thin and brittle, increasing the risk of broken bones.
4.Enlarged spleen: the spleen aids in fighting infection and filters unwanted material, such as old or damaged blood cells. Thalassemia is often accompanied by the destruction of a large number of red blood cells and the task of removing these cells causes the spleen to enlarge.
5.Slowed growth rates: anemia can cause a child's growth to slow. Puberty also may be delayed in children with thalassemia.
6.Heart problems: such as congestive heart failure and abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), may be associated with severe thalassemia Curative Methods Bone marrow transplant (BMT) from compatible donor
It is possible to be cured, with no more need of blood transfusions, thanks to Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT) from compatible donor.The thalassemia-free survival rate is 87%; the mortality risk is 3%.
Bone marrow transplant (BMT) from haploidentical mother to child
If the patient does not have an HLA-matched compatible donor such as the first curative method requires, there is another curative method called Bone Marrow Transplantation(BMT) from haploidentical mother to child (mismatched donor), in which the donor is the mother.The results are these: thalassemia-free survival rate 70%, rejection 23%, and mortality 7%. Bora Culiqi