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Scaffolding for Student Success

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on 12 October 2014

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Transcript of Scaffolding for Student Success

Scaffolding for Student Success
What is the opposite of scaffolding?
Assigning students to write:
Select a theme presented in Shakespeare's
Romeo and Juliet
and analyze how the theme is expressed in the work.
Read this 5 page scienctific article and write a detailed essay on the topic it explores.
Write an essay which discusses five of the causes of the American Revolution.

What is scaffolding?
Scaffolding is breaking the learning into chunks and then providing a tool or structure for each chuck.
Scaffolding allows the teacher to help students transition from assisted tasks to independent performances.
Scaffolding provides the learner with sufficient guidance until the process is learned, and then the support is gradually removed.
Ways to Scaffold
Show don't Tell....Model, Model, Model

Most of us learn best by seeing and doing rather than just telling.
Begin by showing students what they are expected to do.
Provide Examples
Conduct Think Alouds
Write in front of students
Write with them

Scaffold First, Then Differentiate
Scaffolding is what educators should be doing first in order to meet the needs of the learners in our classrooms.
If students still cannot complete the task with the scaffolding, then we should differentiate or modify the assignment for those who still struggle.
Why Scaffold?... ZPD
In order to meet the needs of our students, we have to know their individual and collective Zone of Proximal Development
ZPD the distance between what students can do by themselves and the next learning that can be achieved with competent assistance.
Students' cognitive abilities are still developing so opportunities for them to see developed critical thinking is essential
Writing Frames / Teaching Structure
Examine model or mentor text
Teach how writing in structured
Provide writers with structures to write in
Use sentence prompts / questions to generate ideas
provide skeleton outlines
Rhetorical Models
Use models or samples to discover then imitate.
Read and mark text
Use color coding for emphasis.
Identify the language features that are commonly used in a genre.
Compare how texts perform rhetorical moves such as making an argument or giving examples.
Follow models by practice exercises that involve imitation.
Joint / Group Construction
Teacher lead / Whole class construction
On overhead/computer teacher writes what students say offering corrections and suggestions.
Have a group of learners construct a text together,
Sentence level constructions
Paragraph emphasis
Beat the author
Once they have done constructions together, than have students do it independently.

Cloze Procedures
Exercises in which text with missing elements need to be completed by the students
Informal Language to Improve
Use Academic Expressions in a Cloze Activity
The story describes
that took place on March 17, 2011. On that day, a big tsunami hit Ishinomaki, Japan. A
name Hideaki Akaiwa lived in that town at that time. His wife was at home and she could not get

their house
the tsunami covered the whole town with
a lotta
water. Akaiwa realized he had to rescue his wife. He looked for his scuba
and jumped in the water.

In “Hideaki Akaiwa: Japan’s Scuba Hero” by Mark Magnier, a man named Hideaki Akaiwa demonstrates unusual bravery. He did not watch others die after a tsunami hit his hometown. ____________, he bravely donned scuba _____________ and plunged into the water that submerged his neighborhood. ______________, he was able to save his wife and mother. _____________, he was able to save others in his town. Magnier _____________ Akaiwa’s ability to save others to Akaiwa’s bravery.
Infer, v.
Inference, n.
Word Bank
as a result
for example
in addition
To make a
based on
eat it
plant it
grow a plant
grow an entire cornfield

With a kernel you can get something started
What can you do with a kernel of corn?
Essay Structures...Gretchen Bernabei
A Memory
Where You Were
Moment it Started
Next Moment
Final Moment
What you thought/ learned
Identify the Structure /
Find the Kernel Essay
Read an essay
Break it into chunks
Summarize the chunks
Read the summary sentences of the kernel/model essay
Use the same structure to try a kernel essay on a different topic
Essay Structures...Gretchen Bernabei
We value these things
Think about this
I Believe
We must do
Essay Structures...Gretchen Bernabei
Here is the
Proven Theories
What Works
So...We must
do this...
Return to the same text
Read & Mark Text for Elements of the Genre
A Memory
Sensory Details
Read & Mark Text for Elements of the Genre
Call to
Read & Mark Text for Elements of the Genre
Grammatical Scaffolding
Exercises designed to teach
particular grammatical structures.

Provide models for students to imitate.

Have them include what they do into their essays.
Teach Grammatical Structure:
Writing with adjectives
out of order
Adjectives out of order are adjectives set off with a comma that follow rather than precede the noun they describe.

The puppy, tired and fatigued, refused to play.
Adjectives Out of Order
You try...
Adjectives Out of Order:
The puppy, tired and fatigued, refused to play.
Paragraph written together
Memories make us who we are.

People often learn from their mistakes which makes them stronger and wiser. For example, a student who cheats on a test because they failed to study, but gets caught and fails any way, may learn that cheating is not wise.

That student just might learn from their mistake and study the next time. Learning from our mistakes and remembering what we have done wrong, makes us who we are.

Use Colors to Help Students Visualize what they need to do
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