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Revolutions: A Fight for FREEDOM
Transcript of Revolutions: A Fight for FREEDOM
General George Washington was a strong military leader for the colonial armies that surrounded armed forces and ended the Revolutionary War. He had white skin, white hair, and was an incredible man of character. He started his amazing legacy in American history by inheriting his older half brother Lawrence’s militia office. He continued his political involvement both as a military leader and then through popular support became the first president of the United States of America. His lack of ambition for total power and his respect for popular sovereignty is what made Washington a good leader. When appointed to be presidency he did so with reluctance and not all with greed or from being power hungry. Washington never had any formal education beyond the basics of primary school. He did not excel in reading and literature but managed to be an eloquent speaker. He was from an aristocratic family and that was well to do.
Thomas Jefferson was a American Founding Father, the main writer of the Declaration of Independence, and the 3rd president of the United States of America. He was born to a well to do family in Virginia where he received extensive education, and attended the college of William & Mary. One of the aspects that made Jefferson so important was his in depth knowledge about Enlightment ideas and the path he set America towards by writing the Declaration of Independence, Recruitment Support/Coming to Power Revolutions Ash, Pavan, Sammi, and Elli Causation Leadership French Revolution Leadership Recruitment a fight for FREEDOM LEADERSHIP CAUSATION Recruitment American Revolution The American Revolution was supported by several European countries such as the Netherlands, France, Spain, and several German Principalities. These countries that supported the reels did so to start chipping away at the British Hegemony in the Atlantic Ocean Basin.
In the American Revolution, there was no particular social class that supported the revolution more. Both the taxes that Britain levied on the colonies and the acts that Britain decreed upon the colonies had an equally bad appeal on all social classes. All of the classes came together for this revolution.
Haym Solomon was one of the few private investors that helped fund the war. The colonies received a little support from the European countries that supported the war effort. The colonies struggled to finance the war due to rising inflation because of the actions of British agents in the colonies (they duplicated money, causing value to drop) and the struggle of the Colonies to create funds (causing them to make more money, furthering the inflation rate of their money).
The local militias employed guerrilla tactics effectively against British forces. In the final military confrontation of the war, French and American forces under the command of George Washington surrounded the British Forces of Charles Cornwallis in Yorktown, Virginia. After a 21 day siege, the British forces surrendered in October 1781, and major military hostilities ceased from that point forward. In 1783 diplomats concluded the Treaty of Paris, by which the British government formally recognized American Independence. French Revolution Haitian Revolution
The son of slaves by the name of Toussaint Louverture was a free man and a skilled organizer, and by 1793, he had built a strong and disciplined army. He shrewdly played Spanish, French, and British forces against one another while also jockeying for power with other black and mulatto generals. By 1797, he led an army of 20,000 men and controlled most of Saint-Domingue. He created a constitution that granted equality and citizenship to all residents of Saint-Domingue. But in 1802, Napoleon dispatched an army of 40,000 troops to restore French Authority in Saint-Domingue. Toussaint attempted peaceful negotiations but the French commander sent him to France where he died in jail. By the time Toussaint died, yellow fever decimated most of the French forces, allowing the black generals that succeeded Toussaint to overcome the remaining French forces. In 1803, the rebels declared independence and proclaimed the establishment of Haiti.
The slave revolt did not directly receive any foreign assistance. British and Spanish forces did arrive to try and benefit from the French’s difficulties. Due to this intervention, more confusion was instilled and this immensely helped the efforts of the slave revolt. But the British also invaded Haiti as well so that Jamaica didn't gain any ideas from Haiti so more problems were created.
This revolt was mainly supported by the slave population which numbered about 500,000 people. This revolt was the only successful slave revolt in history.
By the late 18th century, Saint-Domingue had many large communities of maroons (escaped slaves), who maintained their own societies and sometimes attacked plantations in search of food, weapons, tools, and additional recruits. These societies contributed to the war effort. Extra raids were done for food and weapons to supply the army of the rebel slaves. Venezuelan Revolution How they Financed Their Cause How They Won Support from Certain Social Classes: Support From Foreign Countries: How They Won: How they Financed Their Cause: Support from Certain Social Classes: Support From Foreign Countries: The American revolution encouraged the French, Haitian, Venezuelan, and Mexican revolutions; People were attracted to the revolutionary cause because the French revolutions was successful. Venezuelan Revolution Haitian Revolution American Revolution Mexican Revolution Inspired by the American revolution, Simon Bolivar wanted to make South America into a great confederation based on popular sovereignty. Bolivar used the culture to shape people's opinion against their own self-interest. The main colors for propaganda were blue for freedom and trust, yellow for happiness and wisdom, and red for valor and hardiness. Bolivar promised to expel the Spaniards and make an independent union. The propaganda included images of eagles and native to display and encourage the importance of the revolution. Napoleon promised liberation from the acien regime and a new constitution containing "liberty, equality, and fraternity ". The revolutionary movement attracted people by promising equality of all men, sovereignty, and individual rights. The propaganda was sometimes in the colors red, white, and blue. Napoleon's strong character and powerful position also attracted people. Mexican Revolution Pre-Revolution Haiti
Before the revolution, Haiti was a colony split by the French and Spanish. Whites were at the top of the social class and governed the gens de couleur. The gens de couleur had limited freedom. For example, free mulattoes had to serve in the military for three years after reaching adulthood, and then serve in the local militia without compensation. Also, mulattoes could not hold office and were excluded from Haitian society Support From Foreign Countries Support From Foreign Countries: Support From Foreign Countries: Support from Certain Social Classes: Support from Certain Social Classes: Support from Certain Social Classes: How They Won How They Won How They Won How they Financed Their Cause How they Financed Their Cause How they Financed Their Cause Most of the support came from the third estate, which was composed of the impoverished and slaves/serfs. Because of all of their strife, these classes started believing that the government owed them the rights of existence. The French had a massive inflation problem after this revolution; their currency had plummeted in value by 20%. This is because of mass production and use of their paper currency (known as assignats) by the National Assembly after their revolution had succeeded. But after the revolution, the National Convention was leading a country in shambles and on the verge of civil war. Mexico
Mexico was a Spanish colony ruled by whites. There was discrimination and mistreatment of non-whites. Natives and Africans were subject to taxes called the "Tribute". The Spanish government policies limited the non-whites to socially and politically advance. Blue, representing freedom, and red, representing valor, were popular colors for propaganda. Most of the pictures of propaganda have pictures of leaders on it to encourage people's beliefs that the leader was powerful enough to succeed in the revolution. The revolutionary movement attracted people by relating to the natives and using culture to turn people’s opinions against their own self-interest. Also, the promises that the leaders made attracted people. The Revolution began when the members of the Third Estate convened in a tennis court and created the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. After the Third Estate successfully became the National Assembly, they stormed Bastille. The King was also later captured and the revolutionaries had taken power. But due to the revolution, France had been left broken and scarred and civil war was looming. Their success also led to Maximilien Robespierre’s dictatorship a couple of years later. The revolution did not receive much help from other countries, but it was enemies with a lot of countries such as Austria and Spain. Though the country did receive inspiration from the newly formed United States. Venezuela
Venezuela was also a Spanish Colony that sought independence from Spain . One factor that caused tension was the power division; the Peninsulares controlled most of the government. The rest of the power resided with the crown. The poor non-whites had no power or say in government. Second, many in Venezuela saw the American Revolution and were inspired to create their own nation, free of the Spanish. The third factor was the deposition of the Spanish crown by Napoleon Bonaparte. When he instilled his brother as leader of Spain, Venezuela's revolution went into action. The non-whites of Venezuela, and the rest of Latin America as well, were not given the treatment they deserved or the voice in government that they longed for. So this revolution was mainly supported by the non whites of Venezuela. Venezuela did not receive help from outside countries, this revolution was like a civil war in Venezuela between the Creoles and the whites. The Spanish crown had been overthrown and the American Revolution has already given much inspiration to many different revolts as well. The Venezuelan revolt, like most of the other Latin American revolts, was based on color dominance and how the non whites wanted to stand up to the whites. Simon Bolivar was one of the leaders of a part of this revolutions. He took advantage of the turmoil in Spain and Declared Venezuela an independent nation, and took charge in a dictatorial position. He did not last very long though because when the Spanish regained power, they reinstalled their rule in Venezuela. When Napoleon's brother took power of Spain, the colony of New Spain proclaimed themselves in the name of the powerless King Ferdinand VII. That was when tensions started heating up between the Peninsulares and the creoles. The creoles wanted more of a say but the Peninsulares treated them as if they were nothing. Father Miguel Hidalgo was an active member to support the group of creoles, mestizos, and natives. He and another general started their revolt by going into a city and looting all the Peninsulares and "whites" they saw in their path. In the end the two were captured and executed but both remained remembered as prominent people. Hidalgo used looted money to finance the pay of his soldiers and also looted for food. This helped minimalize inflation because nothing new was sreated and distributed. Miguel Hidalgo mainly received support from the non-white population such as Slaves, Native Americans, and lower class creoles. This was due to the fact that he was fighting for these people to have more of a voice. The American Revolution was mainly caused by acts put in place by the British government. The Sedition Act- when citizens who criticized elected officials were fined or imprisoned- and the Alien Act- allowed the president to expel any foreigner he thought was dangerous- both put the seed of revolt into colonist’s hearts. The Quebec Act- a Canadian government and rights for Catholic French established-, the Tea Act- taxes on tea-, the Quartering Act- colonist required to provide housing, candles, bedding, and beverages to British soldiers-, the Townshend Act- taxes on glass, paper, silk, lead, and tea-, the Sugar Act- taxes on sugar-, the Stamp Act-, taxes on legal documents-, and the Intolerable Acts- closed Boston Port, forbid town meetings, established a military government, and added more acts onto the Quartering Act- all add up and angered colonists to the point of revolting. Before actually beginning their revolution, the colonists acted out in the Boston Tea Party and the Boston Massacre. All of these actions eventually led to the American Revolution. French Revolution In the 18th century, France was stricken with financial problems because of the wars of Louis XIV. The country was in bankruptcy. To try to raise money, taxes were levied. However, society was dominated by status, clergy, and nobility, and these people were not taxed. Citizens did not understand why they, who did all the work in the society, were taxed and the nobles, who did nothing, were not. There were other problems in France at the time also. Food was scarce because of crop failure in the 1780s and prices for bread were high. Peasants were hit by both economical and agricultural issues, leading to unrest. King Louis XV and Louis XVI tried to tax nobles but met resistance at parliament, which was run by nobles. In 1788, all attempts had failed and the country was in for a revolution. Mexican Revolution In Mexico, the creoles decided they wanted control. They didn’t like the Spaniards in power or the political/economic reforms that were being put in place. The creoles were also afraid of the liberal ideas of the US and France. Colonists were willing to follow the creoles because they also didn’t like the Spaniards and there were numerous agricultural problems at the time. A bad harvest had taken place and therefore, corn prices were very high. Mines were closing and famine was occurring. Henceforth, the Mexican Revolution began. Venezuelan Revolution In the 19th century, the economic interests of Venezuelans and Spaniards had changed. Spain only saw the colonies as a source of income and the Venezuelans were starting to want freedom to sell their crops- coffee and cocoa- in the world markets themselves. Social issues were also arising. Anyone who wanted a higher role in the colony had to go against the Spanish government. So when Napoleon invaded Spain in 1880, the Venezuelans were given an opportunity to exploit their growing rebellion. Before, in 1810, in the town of Carcas, the governor was deposed and established a junta- group dictatorship. Together with Simon Bolivar and Francisco de Miranda, the junta passed legislation that lifted restriction of trade, abolished taxes on food, stopped Indian tribute payments, ended slavery, and eventually led to the Venezuelan Revolution. Haitian Revolution The root of the revolution in Haiti was the social imbalance. Slaves consisted of the majority of the population, yet they were at the bottom of the social chain. They were oppressed daily and deprived economically in a system of great wealth. Slaves wanted to end their enslavement and social inequality. They got a break when class tensions between the white people began. Although Haiti was a French Colony, it was not part of the Estates-General of 1789. The colonists began to be left out of their government. In local councils, the Gens de Couleur and the slaves were not represented, so eventually they began the Haitian Revolution. People wanted to be free, to govern themselves. There were economic difficulties; high taxes, not enough food, etc. Lower classes were losing their say in the government; nobles had all the power. There were other wars going on allowing for opportunity. Social inequality existed; it was often the lower classes rebelling France
In France before the revolution, an absolute monarchy was in place. A policy known as the ancien regime or “old order” was in place. The ancient regime said there were three political classes: the Roman Catholic clergy, the nobles, and then everyone else. Each group got a say in the Estates-General, but the commoner group often lost their say. Basically the king had ultimate power and the Estates-General was only called when the King wanted it. There were no foreign countries that aided in Mexico's revolution. The Boston Tea party: an act of rebellion against the British crown in response to high tea taxes. Louis XIV, king of France: because of his wars, France went bankrupt Slaves being mistreated in Haiti. Their mistreatment caused them to rebel All of the leaders in the revolutions promised to change the constitution (or make one) and make men equal. L'Ouverture promised his followers a constitution of equality and citizenship. The propaganda was mainly slaves with encouraging words around him. The main colors were black, white, red and blue. L'Ouverture attracted the natives and mulattoes to his causes because he helped them realize the mistreatment of the non-whites. The American revolution promised “Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness,” to all citizens. People were attracted to the revolutionary cause because they wanted the freedom of religion and speech that was needed. Common symbols on revolutionary propaganda were rattlesnakes and Washington. These kept people believing that they were going to win. The most common colors on the propaganda were red, white, and blue. The propaganda in the independence of Mexico was more words than pictures. A speech called the “Cry of Dolores” was inspirational to the people and encouraged people to join the revolutionary movement. Hidalgo, the powerful revolutionary leader was a symbol of Mexican independence. Mexico wanted social and economic independence from Spain. A popular color in Mexican propaganda was red and a symbol was an eagle. The Venezuelan revolution, like the Mexican revolution, was also funded by raiding the whites. Support/ Coming to Power All of the other revolutions took some inspiration from the American revolution. All of them were successful in inspiring their peoples to a certain degree. All of the revolutions took power, even if only for a short period of time All of the revolutions were in colonies, and all of the colonies had their mother country retaliate against their rebellion. All led to the eventual freedom of the country in the future. America
Before the American Revolution the thirteen colonies of New England were governed by the British. They benefited handsomely from British rule because the British military forces protected colonist’s interests. The British governed the colonies through taxes but local communities had a lot of jurisdiction in their internal affairs..Due to constant fighting with France in America (The French and Indian War) which later escalated into the Seven Years’ War Britaihad a lot of debt that they wanted the colonies to help pay. They installed taxes like the Stamp Act, Townshend Act, Tea Act, and Quartering Act which were detested by the colonists. The colonists proposed that they should have jurisdiction over their lands and so mounted protests like the British Tea Party and organized the Continental Congress to coordinate resistance against the British. Finally things broke down in 1775 at Lexington when a skirmish occurred between a colonial militia and British troops. The Revolution had officially begun! All the leaders were well educated or had some
basic formal education. All the leaders had access to Enligtenment ideas like Popular Sovereignity. All the leaders had some military training,education, or knowledge.
Miguel Hidalgo was born a creole into a well respected family. Miguel’s father was a hacienda manager and, as a result, Miguel grew to learn how to speak the native languages quite fluently. This came in aid later on when calling the different social classes of Mexico together to fight against the peninsulares. Father Miguel de Hidalgo had extensive education as a child going to several religious colleges. He attended a Jesuit college and later two other universities. Hidalgo learned French which let him read ideas from the Enlightment that were current in Europe. He became a leader through his involvement in a literacy club that secretly fronted the revolution of Mexico.
Maximilien Robespierre was the “Incorruptible” leader of the Committee for Public Safety,which was the executive authority of the Republic of France. He was the leader of the radical Jacobian party that dominated the convention. He believed France needed restructuring and so closed churches and forced priests to marry. They reorganized the calender. In 1794, he was arrested and sent to the guillotine by the Convention on charges of tyranny.
Napoleon Bonaparte was an ambitious general that was born on August 15, 1769. He was 5 feet 6 inches tall, with fine white teeth, gray eyes, and delicate features. Napoleon studied at a military school in Brianne, France where he also received his education. Napoleon was born to a family of Italian ancestry who had settled in Corsica in the 16th century. Napoleon became an important leader through his military triumphs in battle and built a reputation for himself as an esteemed general. Napoleon is regarded as one of the greatest military commanders of all time which was a great attribute to possess when proclaiming war against so many other nations. He overthrew the Directory, imposed a new constitution, named himself consul, and later Emperor of France. All the leaders had monetary financial support
throughtout their careers as revolutionary figureheads.
Boukman was a self-educated black slave who was also a voodoo priest. Boukman organized a massive slave revolt to rid Haiti of foreigners .Although there is no definitive evidence, scholars believe that Boukman started the original revolution by holding a service that officially started the revolution. This, coupled with the organization of a massive slave rebellion, is what bought him into power. He died during the process, but slaves still succeeded largely due to the leadership of Louverture.
Francois-Dominique Toussaint(Toussaint Louverture) was a black slave born on the island of Saint-Domingue. He is believed to have been well educated by his god father Jean Pierre. He also may have received some education from Jesuit missionaries since he was a devout Catholic. Toussaint’s exceptional military skill and vision for Haiti helped Haiti become an independent black state. Unfortunately, Toussaint was deported from Haiti when Napoleon sent forces to the island. He was put into a jail where he eventually died of maltreatment. Citations http://www.nps.gov/revwar/about_the_revolution/haym_salomom.html
Traditions & Encounters: A Global Perspective on the Past by Jerry Bentley + Herbert Ziegler
Simon Bolivar was creole elite born in Venezuela that led the movement for Independence from Spain. Bolivar was youth blessed with education because he had the opportunity to study things like writing,arithmetic,history,and religion. Later, Bolivar entered military training and became cultured in more topics like mathematics and topographic design. Bolivar was inspired by George Washington and he was a fervent believer in ideas about popular sovereignty. He led a army and, after many years, he merged a lot of the formal colonies into a republic called Gran Colombia. After political and regional differences split up Gran Colombia Bolivar boarded a ship to go to Europe on a self-imposed exile. He died on the way there due to tuberculosis. The current state of Bolivia in South America is named after this inspiring revolutionary leader. All the leaders sought to displace the current government through violent means. There were no non-violent demonstrations and many people ended up losing their life as a result. All the leaders
eloquent lspeakers who knew how to rally support for their revolution. BY: Sammi America Haiti Mexico France Venezuelan By: ASH By: Elli BY: Pavan