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Vladimir Ilyich Lenin

An investigation into the question "To what extent did the individual Vladimir Lenin change history?".
by

Gustav Christensson

on 7 March 2014

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Transcript of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin

VLADIMIR
ILYCH LENIN

Lenin & Stalin - The Same Ideas?

Introduction
Lenin's Legacy
Lenin's Biography
Overview of Events
Overview of Events
Leninism
Lenin's personality
Lenin's Personality
Impact Beyond Russia
Lenin - The Architect of the Soviet Union
Conclusion
Lenin was able to make the whole Russia communist by 1917.
He started to influence other countries to become communist. China for example, founded a communist party in 1921.
Although he died in 1924, he was one of the long-term causes for the Cold War, as the communist states started to increase and to go against the capitalist states.
Lenin was the first to put in action Karl Marx’s ideas and he started communism in Russia. Later, his actions were carried on from other people like Stalin when he died.

To conclude, we believe that Lenin was a great man. However, he could not have changed history without the right context and support from people such as Trotsky. He was "a piece of the puzzle" and also an inspiration; but he still relied on other factors to change history.
This Prezi will answer the question:
"
Can Individuals change history?
"
focusing on how Lenin managed to change Russian and global history through his actions in the Russian Revolution.
Only Tribute left in Europe
Piazza Lenin - Cavriago, Reggio Emilia (Italy)
This bronze bust was made in 1922 by Ukrainians to be placed in front of a train factory.
During the German occupation of World War II, it was stolen and it arrived in Italy, where it fell into the hands of the partisans.
It returned to the Soviet embassy in Rome after the war and it was donated in 1970 on the occasion of the celebrations for the centenary of the birth of Lenin to the municipality of Cavriago.
The bust was placed in a square that took the name of the bust – “Piazza Lenin”. After an attempted terrorist attack it was decided to put the original statue away and leave a copy in the square.
Today, the original bust is still in the city hall and there is only a copy left in the square.
This shows that in some parts of Italy they still believe in Lenin's ideologies.
After Lenin's death in 1924, his followers embalmed his body and placed it in a shrine.
Lenin was an idealist. His speeches and writings were praised by followers.
Paintings of him were created, films about him were made, books about him were written.
He was so popular that the city of St. Petersburg was renamed
Leningrad
until 1991.
Streets were also named after him.
Statues of him were raised in many places.
He was also shown on coins and banknotes.
Lenin designed a communist state that lasted for about 70 years.
He planned how Russia (The Soviet Union) should be governed.
He thought of methods of how to keep the country under control.
He prepared it for Stalin's (brutal) regime:
He devised a way to use terror to keep the state under control:
Imprison political opponents in labour camps, create famines, etc.
He organised the economy (bringing the New Economic Policy, NEP).
He adopted a system (called Leninism) which suited the Soviet Union.
He successfully placed Communist ideas in the Soviet Union.
However, he also fought against corruption in the government.
Besides, he didn't want Stalin to take over the country.
Lenin "founded" the Soviet Union - he put the first bricks in place.
Bibliography I
Gustav
BBC History, Vladimir Lenin (1876-1924), n.d., 02/02/2014, www.bbc.co.uk/historybio., Vladimir Lenin, n.d., 09/02/2014, www.biography.comThe Flying Kiwi, Highlights of Moscow, n.d., 02/03/2014, http://www.richard-seaman.com/Travel/Russia/Moscow/Highlights/
Encyclopaedia Britannica, Vladmir Ilych Lenin, 04/09/2013, 02/02/2014, www.britannica.comProbert Encyclopaedia, JOSEPH STALIN, n.d., 02/03/2014, http://www.probertencyclopaedia.com/cgi-bin/res.pl?keyword=Stalin&offset=0
Infoplease, Vladimir Ilych Lenin, n.d., 09/02/2014, www.infoplease.comSparknotes, Lenin's Legacy, n.d., 09/02/2014, www.sparknotes.com
StudyMode, How important was Stalin's use of 'Lenin's Legacy' in explaining his Victory in the Power Struggle in the years 1924-1929, April 2012,09/02/2014, www.studymode.com
Wikipedia, Vladimir Lenin, 08/02/2014, 09/02/2014, www.en.wikipedia.org

Alice
About.com, Communist Countries, 2014, February 2014, http://geography.about.com/od/lists/tp/communistcountries.htm
Allan Todd, 2006, "Revolutions 1789 - 1917, 8th edition, Cambridge
How stuff works, The spread of Communism, 2014, February 2014, http://history.howstuffworks.com/cold-war/the-cold-war-timeline2.htm
Comune di Cavriago, Il busto di Lenin, 2014, February 2014, http://www.comune.cavriago.re.it/canali-tematici/cosa-vedere/busto-lenin.aspx
Tumblr, What else?, date not listed, February 2014, http://stormina.tumblr.com/post/8784825123/nel-paese-dove-e-nata-orietta-berti-ce-piazza
Humboldt, The Cold War on the international Area, Date not listed, Feruary 2014, http://users.humboldt.edu/ogayle/hist111/coldwar.html
He was a closed and reserved man
His determination was an obsession for him, his confidence was arrogance and he was extreme focused on what he was doing
Lenins also showed an obsession with Revolution of Russia and hatred of authority
Leninism compromises political, social and economic theories, developed by Marxism. It was an ideology that was really powerful. Marxism-Leninism became somwhat of a new religion to many, strictly following its rules as if they were holy commandments.
How Lenin adapts Marxism to suit Russia of 1917:
The doctrine of the revolutionary communist party
- Bolshevik party made a revolution happen
Dictatorship of the proletariat
- Marx thought there needed to be a long period of Capitalism before the workers could seize power. Lenin suit they could make this capitalist period much shorter and go from being backward straight into Communism
Social:
Changed Russia from an aristrocracy to a republic
Allowed everyone to have an education - Literary % went from 15 to 85%
Removed the Orthodox Church's position as a pillar of the Russian society
Jews could do everything again, they were free
Political:
Overview of Events
Timeline of main events
Stalin's Use of Lenin's Legacy
Communism Today
Other Factors That Helped Lenin Change History
Bibliography II
Unfortunately, Joseph Stalin was able to use Lenin's positive image (e.g. pretend he was his best friend) to become powerful.
Stalin came to power some years after Lenin's death.
He created one of the worse regimes in history.
Lenin had asked Joseph Stalin to be removed from his office to prevent him from abusing his power. (This didn't happen...)
Stalin manipulated Lenin's ideas to make himself powerful.
By making himself appear as a close friend of Lenin, he gained the people's support.
By the 1930s, Stalin had used Lenin's Legacy to emerge as the sole leader of Russia.
Stalin revolutionised Russia but he brought misery to many people through his actions. He ruled until his death in 1953 but the Soviet Union continued until 1991.
Lenin
Stalin
A leader & revolutionary. Led a revolution.
Guided the people through the Russian Revolution & Civil War.
Leninism.
He was the subject of poems and artwork.
Inspired by Karl Marx.
A leader & dictator. Led the Soviet Union.
He was the subject of poems and artwork.
Manipulated Lenin's legacy to become powerful.
Stalinism.
Guided the people through the 20s, 30s, World War 2, part of Cold War.
Caused famines, built Labour Camps.
Industrialised Russia.
Built relationships with allies.
Revolutionised Russia.
Began to use terror to keep state under control.
Today we still debate over how
similar
or how
different
the two leaders were.
Still,
they both changed Russia in very different ways
.
THEORIST - He was a brilliant theorist, whose adaptations became known as Marxism-Leninism. His idea of a small and disciplined revolutionary party that could have seized power on behalf of the working class was crucial in 1917.
LEADER - Lenin traits led him to mistakes, however, also led him to many successes. He was able to find solutions to the problems. For example: he was an outstanding leader, who alone was able to hold the Bolshevik Party together when it might have fragmented.
Communism began to spread in Europe in 1947. To try to prevent the spread of this ideology, America sent economic aid to 16 European countries and guaranteed military assistance to any nation threatened by the spread of communism.
Although it did Communism did not conquest the world for long, there are still communist countries today: China (1949 but it was never allied with USSR); Cuba (1961); Laos (1975); Vietnam (1945 North, 1976 Unified); North Korea (1947).
July Days (16 -20 July 1917):

This was the next great crisis. It was an anti-government protest by sailors, troops and workers in Petrograd. When the Socialists Revolutionaries, the Mensheviks and the Bolsheviks failed to provide organization and leadership. The Provisional Government took advantage to falsely blame the Bolsheviks to for organizing the uprising and they have been criticized about leading it in the wrong way. Several Bolsheviks leader, including Leon D. Trotsky, were arrested and Lenin, who came back from exile, returned to Finland for his own safety.
China
Laos
Cuba
Vietnam
North Korea
The Provisional Government was unpopular in Russia and they did not meet the ideas of the Bolshevik slogan,
"Peace, Bread, Land"
. There were food shortages and the peasants were infuriated by the lack of land they owned.
The Kornilov Affair:

The Bolshevik position was restored by an episode happened between the 27th and the 31st August. A growing number of liberal and right-winged politicians believed that what could save Russia from the militant left was a military dictatorship.
Alexander Kerensky (only member of the Provisional Governement) sent General Kornilov to suppress a supposed Bolshevik coup.
Afraid of Kornilov returning against him, Kerensky joined the Bolshevik side.
Kerensky ordered the release of imprisoned Bolsheviks and called the Red Guards to frustrate the coup. Kornilov's troops were undermined and he was arrested. Although Kerensky's credidbility crashed, the Bolshevik's popularity soared.
Mavi:
Wikipedia.com; Lavr Georgievic Kornilov; 6/08/2013; 6/03/2014; http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lavr_Georgievi%C4%8D_Kornilov
Wikipedia.com; Leon Trotsky; 1/03/2014; 3/03/2014; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leon_Trotsky
Wikipedia.com; July Days; 24/02/2014; 3/03/2014; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/July_Days
Wikipedia.com; Peter Paul Fortress; 29/10/2012; 6/03/2014; http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Peter_Paul_Fortress.jpg
St.Petersburg Apartment Rentals - by Oksana's Ltd.; The Russian Revolution A Gallery of Photos; 25/05/2006; 6/03/2014; http://www.nevsky88.com/saintpetersburg/revolution/
In Defence of Marxism; Women and the crisis of capitalism; Fighting back on a class basis!; 21/9/2011; 6/03/2014; http://www.marxist.com/women-and-the-crisis-of-capitalism.htm
Workers Power; Women in red October; (not listed); 6/03/2014; http://www.workerspower.co.uk/2007/07/women-in-red-october/
Blogspot; Trotsky's History of the Russian Revolution; 25/8/2012; 6/03/2014; http://trotsky1917.blogspot.it/2011/08/20-peasantry-before-october.html
Ross Stewart; 2002; "The Russian Revolution"; Published by Evans Brothers Limited, London, England
Macdonald Hamish; 1994; "Russia and the USSR: Empire of Revolution"; Published by Longman Group UK Limited, London, England
Wood Anthony; 1979; "The Russian Revolution"; Published by Longman Group UK Limited, London, England
General Lavr Kornilov
By the begining of September, the Bolsheviks had a majority in the Petrograd Soviet. Leon Trotsky became the chairman. Lenin, the Provisional Governement's most feared opponent was exile until October 10th 1917.
Russia was very weak and fragile. The population suffered especially from famine. Strikes, lock-outs, demonstrations and occupations happended daily.
Bolsheviks were assisted by two lucky strikes. The first was that a second meeting of the Congress of Soviets was postponed from 20th to the 25th October. The second was that Kerensky ordered a seizure of Bolshevik printing presses. This caused the Bolsheviks to act before the Congres could intervene.
On October 24th Trotsky organized the seizure of the general Post Office, the telephone exchange and the railway station. He sent the Red Guards troops and met little resistance. Lenin took control of the Military Revolutionary Committee (MCR) and sent out an all out Bolshevik offensive.
The Red Army occupied the rest of the city apart from the Winter Palace, where the Provisional Governement sat. When the Second Congress of Soviets met, the guns of Peter Paul Fortress shot inaccurately at the Winter Palace. This convinced radical SR's and Mensheviks to join the Bolsheviks.
Lenin and the Bolsheviks were now totally in control of the city and the Congress.
The Bolshevik seizure of powerin Petrograd was a success. The 'October Revolution' was a truly popular revolution which was also an experssion of people's ideas and thoughts. The Bolsheviks also listened to the people. Their slogan appealed to the low-working classes, soldiers and their families and urban masses.
The Bolsheviks won with the help of women. They dug thousands of trenches, built fortifications, fought and died. Women were used as spies and agents and helped making propagande posters. Women like Konkordia Samoilovna were popular speakers.
Other Factors That Helped Lenin Change History
Other Factors That Helped Lenin Change History
Other Factors That Helped Lenin Change History
Other Factors That Helped Lenin Change History
Women allowed to vote, divorce, have abortion on demand, receive university education
Revolution forced Political Government out
Banned other political parties as Civil War was approaching
Born in Simbirsk on the 22nd April 1870 - Died in Gorki Leninskie on the 21st of January 1924.
He was a Russian politician, revolutionary and philosopher.
1904 - 1917 he was in exile.
He led the Russian Revolution in October 1917.
He was the President of the People's Commissars' Council + USSR.
1922- Whole country re-organised - from Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic to USSR - country split into national republics for larger ethnic and linguistic groups
After creation of National republics, Soviet Government created autonomous republics for many smaller ethno-linguistic groups
Economic:
His first policy - War Communism - planned to feed cities and Red Army during Civil War. Succeded but disaster for Russian economy, especially peasants
New Economic policy (NEP) - semi capitalist policy - small business allowed to operate on free market - large factories like banks stayed in the state's possession because of the War Communism
NEP succeeded at starting Russian Economy - some people became wealthy too
Electrification of country:
"Communism is Soviet Power + Electrification"
1921
1922
1924
1918
1917
October: Revolution
March: Treaty of Brest - Litovsk ends World War I for Russia
Summer: Start of civil war
Introduction of NEP
Ban of factions
Lenin's first stroke
Death of Lenin
Full transcript