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# GCSE Tectonics revision

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## Ciaran McGarry

on 11 May 2014

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#### Transcript of GCSE Tectonics revision

Restless earth
1. The crust is unstable, especially at plate boundaries
1.1 The Earth structure
Challenge 1.1.1 - REMEMBERING
Look at the diagram for 2 minutes - try to remember as much as you can!

Then, look away and re-create the diagram for yourself. Add as many key words and facts as you can.

Next, take a different colour and add any extra detail you missed! Come back to this in two days and see if you can do this again, including all the extra facts you added.
1.1 The Earth structure
There are two types of crust!
When comparing, you need to say how one is different from the other.
Don't just describe one type of crust.

1.Study the information in the above diagram.
Then, from memory, complete the table in your booklet.

2. Complete the gaps using the information you have learnt from the diagram/table:

Continental crust is ________ whereas, oceanic crust is___________.

3. Use the connectives to create 2 more statements which compare the two types of crust:
Challenge 1.1.2 - Comparing types of crust
On the other hand
whereas
However
The crust is broken up into lots of plates.

Where these different plates meet is called plate boundaries.

There are four different plate boundaries - and different things happen at each!
Destructive
Constructive
Collision
Conservative
Destructive plate boundaries
1.1.3 Types of plate boundary
Watch the videos and diagrams of different plate boundaries.
Think, step-by-step what happens at each.
Complete the table to show what is happening at each boundary!
convection currents
Push towards each other
Oceanic and continental crust
Subduction
Melting
Volcanoes
Friction
Earthquakes
Collision plate boundaries
convection currents
Push towards each other
continental and continental crust
NO Volcanoes
Friction
Earthquakes
Folding
Fold mountains
Conservative plate boundaries
convection currents
Slide side-by-side
Different types of crust involved
NO Volcanoes
Friction
Earthquakes
San Andreas Fault
Move past in opposite directions
Or, they can slide past in similar directions but at different speeds!
Constructive plate boundaries
convection currents
Oceanic crust and oceanic crust
magma rises through cracks because of pressure in the mantel
Cracks
Plates pull apart
Volcanoes
Earthquakes
1.1.4 APPLYING!
Use your knowledge of plate boundaries and the arrows to label where you think destructive, constructive, collision and conservative.

HINT: Think about how the plates are moving, towards or away from each other.
2. Unique landforms - fold mountains and deep ocean trenches
Fold mountains
Himalayas (Asia)
Highest parts of the world.
Peaks over 7,000m high
Ocean sediments pushed upwards where plates are pushing together.
The rocks fold over on each other. Creating fold mountains.
3. How do people use fold mountains? And, how do they adapt to living in fold mountains?
4. Volcanic hazards!
4.1 What are the characteristics of volcanoes?
In the picture above, there are the key features of volcanoes.

Create a revision flash card with these key terms to help you remember them.
5. Volcanic hazards - Montserrat case study
6. SUPERVOLCANOES
Make 2 mini mind maps showing the CHARACTERISTICS and WORLDWIDE EFFECTS of supervolcanoes.
Monitoring and predicting volcanoes
7. Earthquakes happen at destructive, constructive and conservative plate boundaries.
How can you measure earthquakes?
8. Earthquakes in rich and poor parts of the world.
Kobe
9. Earthquakes - the 3 P's!
Use the information below to answer the exam question:
Explain how people try to predict, protect and prepare themselves for an earthquake (6 marks)
Sichuan
January 1995
May 2008
New buildings were built further away from each other to stop the domino effect!
Some places were waiting over 30 hours for help!
Emergency services searched for survivors
Landslides blocked roads (this didn't help the rescue mission!)
Panasonic factory had to close
11 million homeless
300,000 homeless
8,700 died and another 61,000 died from the cold.
6,434 deaths
7.9 on Richter scale
7.2 on Richter scale
Road and rail links were up and running by September!
They relied on help from other countries - 20 helicopters sent in to rescue survivors
Urgent calls were made for 3.3 million tents as so many people were homeless.
Knowing your case studies - Kobe and Sichuan.

Use the information below to complete a table - you should have 3 rows - background information, effects and responses.

Then check your answers against the word document with the answers in.

People say that counties in LEDC's are effected greater than those in MEDC's. Use these case studies to compare the two earthquakes and say whether you think this is true.
- Don't forget, you are comparing - so use your connectives:
whereas
On the other hand
unlike
1. How are plates moving?
This is because...
2. What happens when the plates push together?
This is because...
This is because...
3. What happens next?
Deep Ocean Trenches
Marianas Trench
Deepest parts of the ocean
Crust is dragged down (downwarping) as subduction takes place.
Destructive plate boundaries
1. How are plates moving?
This is because...
2. What happens when the plates push together?
This is because...
This is because...
3. What happens next?
3.1.1 Using the photo and your knowledge - jot down as many ways we can use fold mountains... You have 30 seconds! GO!
Some ideas for you...
You could add them to your notes if you don't already have them!
Tourism - Skiing - high mountains and snow make fold mountains great for skiing. For example, the Alps in Europe...
Farming - You can use the land for farming to make food for local people or to sell.
Farming - you could grow crops on the valley floor where there is lots of water available. They grow potatoes in the Andes mountains.
HEP - Hydro-electric Power - Steep valley sides make it good to build dams and store water behind. You can use the dams to stop flooding and also make power! An example of this is the Yuncan Dam in the Andes.
Mining - Fold mountains are rich in minerals which can be mined. For example, gold, silver, tin and nickel. This can be sold for money. An example of this is the Yanacocha gold mine in Peru.
How do people adapt to living in the Andes Mountains?
Terraces
Terraces are little steps dug in to the side of a mountain.
They make flat areas of land which makes it easier to farm.
The flat land helps to collect water, so it doesn't run down the hill.
This helps crops to grow on the side of a mountain.
They mean that people are able to feed themselves and live in fold mountains.
It can be hard living high up in the mountains.
Communication with other places is hard.
Selling/trading things like crops can be difficult.

The Uspallata pass is a high mountain road in the Andes.
It is 12,500ft high!
It links towns with each other and links the Andes with Argentina.
It means people can communicate better and trade more easily in the Andes fold mountains.
Alpacas
This cheeky chappy is an alpaca.

He is strong and can carry a third of his own body weight.
This makes him really useful for farmers when moving things like food up and down the mountains!
He also has fur which keeps him warm. People can use his fur to make coats.
This helps people to survive the cold temperatures.
3.2 Mind map - from memory!
Now, create a mind map about the Andes mountains.
It should include information which answers 2 different questions:

1. How do people use fold mountains?
2. How do people adapt to living in fold mountains?
Andes mountains
How do people adapt?
How do people adapt?
How do people adapt?
How do people use fold mountains?
How do people use fold mountains?
How do people use fold mountains?
How do people use fold mountains?
Mind map instructions
COLOUR!!!!!!!!!!
PICTURES!!!!!!!!!!
SINGLE WORDS!!!!!!!!!!
Once you have completed your mind map - re-read the information and add any further information in a different colour - these are the things you need to concentrate on trying to remember!
3.3 Practise questions!
1. Describe the ways in which people can use fold mountains (8 marks)
Intro: Name your case study, list the ways people use fold mountains.
Paragraph 1:

POINT: simple point to name the way people use it.

EVIDENCE: an example of this is...

EXPLANATIONS: this allows people to live here because...
Paragraph 2:

POINT:

EVIDENCE:

EXPLANATION:
2. Describe the ways in which people adapt to living in fold mountains (8 marks)
Intro: Name your case study, list the ways people adapt.
Paragraph 1:

POINT: simple point to name how people adapt to living in fold mountains.

EVIDENCE: an example of this is...

EXPLANATIONS: this allows people to live here because...
Paragraph 2:

POINT:

EVIDENCE:

EXPLANATION:
4.2 Geographical sketching...
Create a sketch of this volcano

Label 3 key features you can remember (MAKE SURE YOUR
LABELS ARE ACCURATE!!)

Only include features that you can see in the picture.
4.3 Composite and Shield Volcanoes
Shield Volcano
Composite Volcano
Gentle sided slopes
Non-explosive eruptions
Steep sided slopes
Explosive eruptions
Runny lava
Viscous lava
Shield volcanoes have.................................., whereas composite volcanoes have.........................................
Shield volcanoes have.................................., on the other hand, composite volcanoes have..................
Shield volcanoes have.................................., however, composite volcanoes have........................................
Q. Describe the differences between shield and composite volcanoes (3 marks)
The Montserrat volcano was a devastating volcano that took place in 1997 in the Caribbean.
Using a case study of a volcanic eruption, describe the responses (8 marks)
Introduction
The Montserrat volcano of 1997 was a highly explosive eruption with ash clouds and deadly pyroclastic flows. The immediate responses were .............................................. and the long-term responses were......................
Paragraph 1 - immediate response
POINT: An immediate response of the Montserrat volcano was... (basic description)

EVIDENCE: An example of this was that... (facts and figures or detail)

EXPLANATION: As a result... (how did this help?)
Paragraph 2 - immediate response
POINT: An immediate response of the Montserrat volcano was... (basic description)

EVIDENCE: An example of this was that... (facts and figures or detail)

EXPLANATION: As a result... (how did this help?)
Paragraph 2 - Long-term response
POINT: A long-term response of the Montserrat volcano was... (basic description)

EVIDENCE: An example of this was that... (facts and figures or detail)

EXPLANATION: As a result... (how did this help?)
Size: Much bigger than normal volcanoes - 50-100km wide.
Scale: 1,000km cubed of ash released. Mt St Helens, only 1km cubed released.
Shape: Flat or sunken into the ground.
1 in 3 people within 1,000km would be killed.
Large ash clouds would be sent into the atmosphere grounding planes.
Global temperatures would decrease by 10 degrees meaning it would be difficult to grow crops.
Richter Scale
Characteristic 1
Characteristic 2
Characteristic 3
Mercalli Scale
Characteristic 1
Characteristic 2
Characteristic 3
Create your own diagrams including characteristics of each.
Measures damage
Measures magnitude
Uses a seismograph to measure movement of crust
Uses peoples judgement on the damage to the area.
Is counted on a logorithmic scale which increases by 10 times.
Is measured on a scale of I-XII
Contrasting the Richter Scale with the Mercalli Scale
Using your knowledge - complete the sentence structures to contrast them.
1. The Richter scale measures ____________ whereas the Mercalli scale measures ____________.

2. The Richter scale is measured on a ___________ scale, whereas the Mercalli scale is measured on a scale of ________.

3. The Richter scale is measured using a __________, whereas the Mercalli scale is measured using ______________________________.
Prediction
Protection
Preparation
Japan is just one country that has spent a lot of money on trying to predict earthquakes.

It monitors tremors within the earth with the belief that people can be warned of a bigger earthquake. It means that people can get ready for the earthquake and limit the amount of deaths.

 This happened in Loma Prieta in 1994, USA when there were a series of smaller ‘foreshocks’ before a 7.1 earthquake struck in 1989.

 However, there were no foreshocks in Kobe – so there was no way of predicting this earthquake.
In China, strange animal behaviour has been used before.
Earthquake proof buildings

EG Transamerica building in San Francisco.

Steel cages
Weights at the top which make it sway with the ground.
Built on shock absorbers.
Evacuation space outside.
Japan has lots of earthquake drills in which hospitals, emergency services, and people to practice what they would do.

Children in schools in Japan learn this at the age of 3!

Public buildings have a code of practice so people now exactly what to do when an earthquake strikes.

It works by making sure that everybody know what they need to in an earthquake so that they can act quickly.

This increases people’s chances of survival in the event of an earthquake.
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