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Organic Compound

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Yuna Lee

on 3 October 2018

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Transcript of Organic Compound

Organic Compound
is a chemical compound that contains carbon (C)
is an organic compound that react with other molecules to form polymers.
Combined with organic compounds
* Monomer of Carbohydrates

* Why are carbohydrates important?

* Examples of Carbohydrates

* How do Carbohydrates form?

* Function of Carbohydrates
Nucleic Acids




Amino ACids
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
A large proportion of our cells, muscles and tissue is made up of amino acids, meaning they carry out many important bodily functions, such as giving cells their structure. Proteins are made up of long chains of amino acids.
About protein
Protein is very important to human body because we need proteins for formation of cells, immune function, repairing tissue and producing emzymes and hormones.
AP Biology Concept Map
Yuna Lee
Also, we need protein in order to build blocks of brain, muscle, skin, hair, and connective tissue. Especially parts of our body constructed by the keratin need protein for regeneration.
Examples of protein
How does it form?
1. Fibrous Protein
2. Globular protein
3. Membrane protein
Fibrous proteins form muscle fiber, tendons, connective tissue and bone.

Globular proteins are more water soluble than the other classes of proteins and they have several functions including transporting, catalyzing, and regulating.

Membrane proteins play several roles including relaying signals within cells, allowing cells to interact, and transporting molecules.

Ex) Actin, Collagen, Keratin, Myosin, Nebullin, Tau, Titin, Tubulin
Ex) Alpha globulin, Beta globulin, Carboxypeptidase, Hemoglobin
Ex) Estrogen receptor, Glucose transporter, Rhodopsin, Scramblase
Step 1 : Transcription (DNA -> RNA)
From DNA in the cell nucleus, enzyme RNA polymerase copies DNA segment into RNA segment.

Step 2 : Translation (RNA -> Protein)
transfer RNA decodes a messenger RNA sequence into ribosomes to produce certain amino acid chain (polypeptide). TRNA transfer amino acid to tRNA to next codon.

Step 3 : Synthesis (Protein -> Whole)
Complete making proteins!

A macromolecule is a very large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by the polymerization of smaller subunits (monomers).
Humans need protein for the structure of cells, function of cells, and regulation of the tissues, organs, and bones. The examples are antibody, enzyme, messenger, Structural component, and transport/storage. They build tissues and muscles, produce hormones (i.e. steroids), build immune functions with energy, and produce enzymes that speed up the chemical reaction.
* Monomer of Nucleic Acids

* Why are Nucleic Acids important?

* Examples of Nucleic Acids

* How do Nucleic Acids form?

* Function of Nucleic Acids
* Monomer of Lipids

* Why are Lipids important?

* Examples of Lipids

* How do Lipids form?

* Function of Lipids
Contain CHON, sometimes S
Contain CHO elements
Simple sugar (i.e. glucose and fuctose) -> two monosaccarides connected together makes a disaccharide.
Why is carbohydrate important?
All carbohydrates come from fruits, vegetables, breads, pasta, and dairy products. Our bodies use energy from these consumptions to change it into glucose. If there is no carbohydrates, we won't have a main energy source. Our brain needs glucose for energy source. It also helps with fat metabolism.
EXAMPLES OF carbohydrates
Monosaccharides: Glucose, Fructose
Disaccharides: Lactose, Maltose
Polysaccarides: Cellulose, Starch
How do they form?
Step 1) Cells use ener to form glycosidic linkages, the link between monosaccharides

Step 2) Dehydration synthesis reaction forms a bond between carbon atoms in two monosaccharides, center with oxygen atom.

Step 3) Disaccharide forms when two monomers are joined (Sucrose is made by glucose and fructose)

Step 4) Extend carbohydrate chains
Function of Carbohydrates
Functional Group
Hydroxyl Group
Carboxyl Group
Carbonyl Group
Amino Group
Providing energy and regulation of blood glucose
Sparing the use of proteins for energy
Breakdown of fatty acids and preventing ketosis
Biological recognition processes
Flavor and Sweetness
Dietary fiber
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