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Instructional Design

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Kris King

on 21 July 2014

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Transcript of Instructional Design

Instructional Design
Twitter: @msu_ctl
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/msuctl
What is Instructional Design?
Early Contributors
Popular ID Models
Breaking down the steps of ID
What is Instructional Design?
Assessment image retrieved July 4. 2014 from http://www.cmu.edu/teaching/designteach/design/learningobjectives.html

Clark, D. (1995). Big dog’s ISD page [Online]. Available:

Create Content image retrieved July 8, 2014 from http://blog.klout.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/Screenshot-2013-11-12-22.48.49.png

Dick and Carey model image retrieved June 30, 2014 from http://starsedet703.wikispaces.com/ADDIE+Flavor

Dick, Walter image retrieved July 1, 2014 from http://www.fsu.edu/~isunion/isenews/20011101opener.html

Feedback image retrieved July 8, 2014 from http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-HuVI8ZR0hH0/UgfQS1nDO4I/AAAAAAAADAM/DRXTSBJAdaM/s1600/feedback-heads1.png

Field experience image retrienved July 8, 2014 from http://biology.unm.edu/Biology/pwatson/public_html/FieldExperience1.jpg

Five categories of learning image retrieved July 18, 2014 from http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-1kdkQ0mXjfY/UfOG335FswI/AAAAAAAAAVg/tT-wPegW4RY/s1600/5+Categories+Of+Learning+By+Robert+Gagne.jpg

Gagne. Image retrieved June 26, 2014 from robertmgagne.blogspot.com

Gagné, R. (1985). The Conditions of Learning and the Theory of Instruction, (4th ed.), New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.

Gagne, R. & Driscoll, M. (1988). Essentials of Learning for Instruction (2nd Ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Goals image retrieved July 1, 2014 from http://www.npengage.com/online-fundraising/setting-goals-google-analytics/

Gustafson, K. L., & Branch, R. M. (1997). Revisioning models of instructional
development. Educational Technology, Research and Development, 45 (3), 73-89.

The systematic design of instructional materials. ID is a methodological approach in designing all aspects of instruction.

Instructional Design:
Instructional Systems Design (ISD)
Instructional Design (ID)
Gustafson, K.L., & Branch, R.M. (2002).
Generic Model
Basis for all other models
Origin: Florida State & U.S. Department of Defense (1975)
Clark, D. (1995).
Early Contributors
Robert Gagné
Gagné & Driscoll, 1988
The Conditions of Learning (1965)
Five Categories of Learning
Nine Instructional Events
Five Categories of Learning
Intellectual Skills (identify, apply,)
Cognitive Skills (observe, monitor)
Verbal Information (state, recite)
Motor Skills (execute, perform)
Attitudes (prefer, choose, favor)
Nine Events of Instruction

Gain attention
Inform learners of objectives
Stimulate recall of prior learning
Present the content
Provide “learning guidance”
Elicit performance (practice).
Provide feedback
Assess performance
Enhance retention and transfer to the job
Gagné, R. (1985)
Gagné, R. (1985)
Early Contributors
Benjamin Bloom
Early Contributors
B. F. Skinner
Behaviorism - learning is a function of a change in behavior due to a response to given stimuli.
Operant Conditioning - changing behavior (learning) through reinforcement. (reinforcers, punishers, neutral)
Contribution to the field: feedback, response, shaping & chunking
Skinner, B.F. (1950). Skinner, B.F. (1953)
Topics to be Discussed
Morrison, Ross, & Kemp
MRK Model
Identify instructional problem(s) and specify relevant goals
Examine learner characteristics
Identify subject content, and analyze task analysis to stated goals and purpose.
Identify instructional objectives.
Sequence content.
ID Models
"Outline ways to apply instructional theory to create an effective lesson or unit" (Morrison, Ross, & Kemp; 2004).
"Provide conceptual and communication tools that can be used to visualize, direct, and manage processes for generating episodes of guided learning" (Gustafson and Branch; 1997).
Morrison, Ross, & Kemp, (2004)
MRK Model (cont.)
Design instructional strategies.
Plan the instructional message and delivery.
Develop evaluation instruments.
Select supportive resources
Morrison, Ross, & Kemp, (2004)
Dick & Carey Model
Fixed, linear design.
Can be used individually or with teams.
Feedback oriented

Walter Dick
Gustafson, K.L., & Branch, R.M. (2002). What is instructional design? In R. A. & J.V. Dempsey (Eds.). Trends and issues in instructional design and technology. Columbus, OH: Merrill/Prentice Hall.

Higher education image retrieved July 14, 2014 from http://www.novadesk.com/Portals/84375/images/higher-education-furniture.jpg

Keller image retrieved July 9, 2014 from http://mailer.fsu.edu/~jkeller/JohnsHome/index.htm

Large classroom image retrieved July 21, 2014 from http://www.purdue.edu/hhs/life360/fall2012/img/large_classroom.jpg

Morrison, G. R., Ross, S. M., & Kemp, J. E. (2004). Designing effective instruction, 4th
edition, New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

MRK model image retrieved 6/30/14 from http://elearningcurve.edublogs.org/2009/06/10/discovering-instructional-design-11-the-kemp-model/

Nine Events of Instruction retrieved July 19, 2014 from http://www.learncamtasia.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/nine_events01.png

Revise image retrieved July 8, 2014 from http://www.eauc.org.uk/image_uploads/revise_logo_large.jpg

Skills image retrieved July 8, 2014 from http://www.matthewb.id.au/career/skills-abilities-knowledge.jpg
Skinner, B.F. (1950). Are theories of learning necessary? Psychological Review, 57(4), 193-216.

Skinner, B.F. (1953). Science and Human Behavior. New York: Macmillan.

The Systematic Design of Instruction image retrieved July 1, 2014 from www.amazon.com
Skinner image retrieved 6/30/14 from drsophiayin.com

Time to evaluate image retrieved July 8, 2014 from http://www.yourextrahand.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/Time-to-Evaluate.jpg

Watson image retrieved July 9, 2014 from http://mailer.fsu.edu/~jkeller/JohnsHome/index.htm

What are you thinking? http://learntoprepare.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/einstein_thinking.jpg

Dick & Carey Model
Identify Instructional Goals
: What are the learners expected to be able to do at the end of instruction?
Is there a need for
Dick & Carey Model

Present skills
Learning environment
Lighting, temperature, physical location
Dick & Carey Model
Analyze Learners and Contexts

Determine step-by-step what learners will do to achieve Prethe goal. Determine what skills and knowledge are required.
Conduct instructional analysis
Write Performance Objectives
Dick & Carey Model
State what the learner will be able to do.
Skills to be learned
Given a computer, Adobe Photoshop, and two video tutorials, the learner will create a digital poster that includes 2 of 3 logos presented.

Dick & Carey Model
Develop Assessment Instruments
Assessments must align with objectives & instructional activities
Dick & Carey Model
Develop Instructional Strategies
Pre-instructional activities
Outline learning activities
Sequence content
Dick & Carey Model

Develop & Select Instructional Materials
Dick & Carey Model
Design & Conduct Formative Evaluations
Dick & Carey Model
Summative Evaluation
Dick & Carey Model
Revise Instruction
Why is ID Important?
Notable Contributors
David Merrill
First Principles of Instruction
John Keller
ARCS (Motivation)
Charles Reigeluth
Elaboration Theory
Importance of ID in Higher Ed Courses
Student/learning outcomes.
Impact how students, faculty, and administrators view your course.
Cheating & plagiarism.
Course/Instructor evaluations.
Extraneous faculty workload.
Retention rates.
Program/school reputation.
Full transcript