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Transcript of Op Art
Optical Nerve Symmetry Composition Patterns and repetition Positive and negative space Lines and contours Black and white painting Unlike the symmetry of Renaissance Art, this symmetry is quite brutal in its approach. The symmetry is in your face, prominent and asks to be looked at. Symmetry “multiplicity of simplicity”
Repeating patterns to achieve effect of movement Patterns & Repetition The “figure” is the positive part of the piece, is clearly defined, and the main part of the art work
The “ground” tends to be larger than the figure and is usually one color and shape, holding piece together Positive and Negative Space Positive space belonging to the figure
Some figures can be so organized that the human eye perceives them as complete even when large sections may be missing Lines
Contours Subject Matter * mechanical patterns and screens Medium Triangle using Paint Open Paint program
Draw an equilateral triangle
Draw consecutive lines at decreasing degrees inside the first triangle, creating another triangle
Triangles should become smaller and curved lines should appear going inwards
Use paint bucket to fill in the outlines, using any color besides black/white
Fill in empty spaces between lines using black paint
Finish off by re-filling the outlines using white paint
Ta-dah! Square using Paint mainly paint but some also incorporated the use of photography
hard edged application of paint
meticulous treatment eliminate all traces of brushstroke
Photographers were slower at producing op art
Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, instructor at Bauhaus taught photographic op art by getting his student to cut out circles and photographing them simplicity is dominant and essential
foundation of non-objective perceptual response
Use of simple geometric shapes and forms
mechanical patterns and screens The Effect of Op Art sets the viewer’s eyes in motion can be at times, very overwhelming to the human eye It allows viewers to drown into the piece, falling into infinity in mirrors created by symmetry and poetic light plays The interaction between the work and the viewer with the eye producing after images, colors vibrations and the flickering of light Influences: Op art has its roots from the Bauhaus School of Architecture and Applied Arts in Germany which opened in 1919
It is from the teaching of this school that op art borrowed the learning concept of constructivism
Initially, Op shared the field with Kinetic art - Op artists being drawn to virtual movement, Kinetic artists attracted by the possibility of real motion
Roots in 19th century art and color theory, in Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's writings on color, and particularly in the Neo-impressionist paintings of Georges Seurat Where did the name come from? In October of 1964, in an article describing this new style of art, Time Magazine coined the phrase "Optical Art" (or "Op Art", as it's more commonly known.) The name was dubbed by a member of the press who witnessed the eruption of this movement “The Responsive Eye” Exhibition Works Cited "The Art Story.org - Your Guide to Modern Art." Op Art Movement, Artists and Major Works. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Mar. 2013.
"Bridget Riley | Op-art.co.uk | Op-Art.co.uk." OpArtcouk RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Mar. 2013.
"Designer Blog." Designer Blog RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Mar. 2013.
Hollein, Max, and Martina Weinhart. Op Art: [erscheint Anlasslich Der Ausstellung "Op Art", Schirn Kunsthalle Frankfurt, 17. Februar 2007 - 20. Mai 2007]. Koln: Konig, 2007. Print.
Holzhey, Magdalena. Victor Vasarely, 1906-1997: Pure Vision. Koln: Taschen, 2005. Print.
Houston, Joe, and Dave Hickey. Optical Nerve: Perceptual Art of the 1960's. London: Merrell, 2007. Print.
Morgan, Robert C., and Victor Vasarely. Vasarely. New York: George Braziller, 2004. Print.
Official Website of Victor Vasarely. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Mar. 2013.
"Op Art - Art History 101 Basics." About.com Art History. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Mar. 2013.
"Op Art in Fashion and Design | Op-art.co.uk | Op-Art.co.uk." OpArtcouk RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Mar. 2013.
"Op Art." MoMA.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Mar. 2013.
Parola, Rene. Optical Art: Theory and Practice. New York: Reinhold Book, 1969. Print.
"Tumblr." Op Art. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Mar. 2013.
"Victor Vasarely | Op-art.co.uk | Op-Art.co.uk." OpArtcouk RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Mar. 2013.
"Victor Vasarely." Leader of the Op Art Movement, Masterworks Fine Art. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Mar. 2013. Op art made its first official appearance in 1965 at the Museum of Modern Art in New York as part of "The Responsive Eye" show organized by William Seitz. Artists such as Vasarely and Riley, considered some of the most prominent artists of this movement displayed their work alongside numerous other aspiring op artists. Op Art- A History movement burst onto the scene in the mid 1960s with artists who had a strong interest in finding an objective and in scientific experiment A History movement burst onto the scene in the mid 1960s with artists who had a strong interest in finding an objective and in scientific experiment
artists were fascinated by the physical laws of light and optics
This generation of artists was committed to exploring natural visual phenomena and the principles of perception
The era of global, social and technological change was an excellent backdrop for this pioneering movement The Importance of Viewer Participation “Op art is meant to be an art that has close contact with everyday people. It is a unique movement because it does not require an individual to have any prior knowledge on a particular subject in order to fully understand the piece as it doesn’t relate back to any form of religious scriptures or previous art styles. Thus, op art can be understood by everyone.” “I dream of social art. The crowd, the masses, a multitude of beings. That is the new dimension. That is the unlimited space and the truth of structures. Art is the plastic aspect of community.”
- Victor Vasarely, Notes Brutes, 1953 * mechanical patterns and screens The Artists Victor Vasarely
Julio de Parc
Carlos Cruz- Diez Legacy of Op Art Fashion (clothes, shoes, jewelry, accessories)
Design (furniture, furnishing fabrics, textiles)
Art Spotlight: Victor Vasarely (1906-1997) Zebre, 1944 Fashion Marc Jacobs The Coach Madison Op Art Collection Coach Inc. September 2010 issue of Elle Décor exclaimed that “eye catching patterns and psychedelic colors are back.” Design Deuton-VB, 1969 Gestalt-Tri, 1978 Hexa 5, 1988 Vega-Lep, 1970 Vega 222, 1969 'Tribute to Malevich’, 1954 Vasarely Foundations buildings in Aix-en-Provence Widely considered to be the father of the Op art movement
Hungarian born artist who studied at the Muhely Academy in Budapest, thought to be the Budapest branch of the Bauhauas.
went from being a graphics designer and a poster artist who created text and typography designs in the 1930s to an optical illusion artist. considered one of the greatest innovators amongst the artists of the 20th century.
motto was “Art for all” Unite plastique The principal behind this pictorial unit was quite simple. It’s basic form, or background was a colored square ten by ten centimetres in size, into which a differently colored geometric figure was inserted—a smaller square, a rectangle, triangle, circle, ellipse, etc. As his basic palette, Vasarely chose six colors, which he later expanded to six color scales, each comprising of 12 to 13 gradations from light to dark, supplemented by a tinted black. Thanks to the introduction of color, Vasarely’s pictorial unit, initially based on the contrast between black and white, positive and negative, could potentially be produced in an infinitie number of variations. Spotlight: Bridget Riley Kiss, 1961 Movement in Squares, 1961 Cataract 3, 1967 From Here, 1994 VS. paintings came to International notice when she exhibited inhe Responsive Eye” exhibition.
It one of Riley’s paintings that was featured on the cover to the exhibition catalogue
Though in the beginning of her career, Riley worked primarily with black and white, her style progressed and changed, adapting to the change of the times. “I couldn’t get near what I wanted through seeing, recognizing and recreating, so I stood the problem on its head. I started studying squares, rectangles, triangles and the sensations they give rise to… It is untrue that my work depends on any literary impulse or has any illustrative intention. The marks on the canvas are sole and essential agents in a series of relationships which form the structure of the painting.” (Bridget Riley) 1967 onwards Riley increasingly began to use colour
also started to use more stabilised forms – often simple vertical straight or wavy lines
positioning of the colour itself that produced the feel of movement she wanted to convey
colour groupings affected the spaces between them to produce fleeting glimpses of other colours and hence the illusion of movement
mid 1980s, Riley began to incorporate diagonal ‘lozenge’ elements rising from left to right which cut across the verticals, shattering the picture plane. “I try to take sensation as the guiding line and build, with the relationships it demands, a plastic fabric which has no other raison d’etre except to accommodate the sensation its solicits.” -Briget Riley modern look was bold, sharp, and minimal
monochrome geometric prints of Op Art perfectly complemented the bold shapes of the mod look
Vidal Sassoon is credited with creating a simple geometric, "Bauhaus-inspired" hair style, also called the wedge bob influential American designer Marc Jacobs’s Spring 2013 collection, which is completely Op Art inspired