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Wood

Den Haag University of applied science - IDE
by

Senko Kabbes

on 3 November 2015

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Transcript of Wood

Wood & Paper
On Youtube, watch some videos about Production of plywood
Production of cardboard boxes
Production of OSB
Softwoods
100 different species.
Coarse and straight grain.
Not suitable for exterior application.
Long fibers -> ideal for paper
Grow all over the world.
Rate of growth of tree determines the strength and value of wood.
Slower = fewer knots, tightly packed grain, harder.
Pine
Spruce
Long straight grain.
Sitka spruce trees 40 - 50 m.
Uniform, knot free appearance.
Superior acoustic properties.
Douglas fir
Very tall up to height of 100m.
Good strength to weight and dimensional stability.
Stiff -> used for structures.
Cedar
Relatively soft and light.
Prone to scratching, abrasion, indentation.
When cut creates oil -> repels insects and protect against decay.
Suitable for exterior application.
Production of sheet paper
Steam bending
Larch
More resistant to salt water.
More resistant to fungus.
More resistant to temperature change.
More resistant to denting and abrasion.
Birch
Relatively fast growing.
Durable, heavy and strong.
Suitable for steam bending,
but prone to warping.
Beech
Short tightly packed grain -> hard material.
Resistant to denting.
Relatively easy to work.
Even density -> wears in a slow, uniform manner.
Prone to shrinking/expanding.
Split under tension.
Suitable for steam bending, laminating, machining.
Most widely used wood.
Elm
Interlocking grain -> resistant to splitting.
Ideal for steam bending.
Certain species are resistant to decay (submerged).
Oak
Hard, strong and stiff.
Resistant to denting and abrasion.
Difficult to work by hand.
Prone to chipping and splitting.
Suitable for exterior application.
Balsa
Fast grown, low density.
Lightest commercial grade timber.
Strong, resilient, shock absorbing for it's weight.
Less lignin than other woods.
Easy carved by hand and machine.
Hard woods
Slow grown, high density.
Strong and heavy.
Hard and resistant to denting.
Tight and uniform grain.
Decorative appearance.
High costs.
Certain species are endangered.
Cork
Bark of the cork oak.
Bark is peeled every 10 years.
Up to 85% air and buoyant.
Resistant to decay.
Suberin (in the cork) protects it from water penetration and microbial attack.
Difficult to burn.
Bamboo
Fast growing grass (up to 1m/day).
Used as a hardwood-like material.
Harder and lighter than many hardwoods.
Suitable for turning, machining and hand work.
Available in round, strand and compressed into planks.
http://www.fastcodesign.com/embed/3483399fa34af
Wood laminating
Paper pulp molding
Manufactured wood
Chipboard
Homogeneous and flat surface.
Poor for screwing and nailing.
Friable edge.
Low costs.
MDF
Homogeneous and flat surface.
More reliable for assemblies than chipboard.
Friable edge.
Poor moisture resistance.
Low costs.
OSB
Homogeneous
Mechanical strength greater than chipboard.
Moisture resistance better than chipboard.
Average for screwing and nailing.
Edges not even.
Tool wear.
Plywood
Homogeneous and flat surface.
Great dimensional stability.
Good for screwing and nailing
Cross layered
Always uneven amount of layers
Paper
The earliest archaeological fragments of paper derive from the 2nd century BC in China.

It is produced by pressing together moist fibers, typically cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them.
Printing papers.
Wrapping paper.
Writing paper.
Blotting papers.
Drawing papers.
Handmade papers.
Specialty papers.
Paper categories
Cardboard categories
16-180 gr/m2
Folding board.
Solid board.
Molded fibre.
Corrugated cardboard.
-> 180-600 gr/m2
-> 600+ gr/m2
Tree trunk section
Annual production of 3.4 billion m3 of timber.

Several thousand species - about 100 commercially available.

Softwood - coniferous, typically evergreen trees.
Hardwood - deciduous, broad leaved trees.
Wood cutting methods
Wood defects
1 and 2 warped, 3 knot, 4 tearing, 5 skewed
Way of sawing a log depends on application of the timber
Shrinkage of wood
With large difference in shrinkage between longitudinal and tangential direction in mind, is this a sensible design?
Full transcript