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The Protestant Reformation
Transcript of The Protestant Reformation
HIST 368 Introduction Martin Luther 95 Theses The Diet of Worms Legacies:
Why does this matter? Effects of Luther Works Cited The Protestant Reformation was a European religious movement that happened during the sixteenth-century. It was largely an effort to reform the Catholic Church. Many historians feel that the modern era began with the Protestant Reformation. Written by Martin Luther in 1517
He is said to have posted them on the Castle Church door in Wettenberg, Germany
The theses were immediately copied and spread about Europe, making it one of the premier historical occurrences that was strongly affected by the fledgling printing press
In the "95 Theses," Luther challenges the authority of the pope directly, penance, and the controversial Catholic indulgences ('95 Theses', Theopedia). Led to a schism within the Catholic Church; the church was never the same after wards
Proliferation of other Protestant sects
Later in life, spoke against Jews, which some historians say may have premeditated German anti-Semitism ('The Reformation,' History Channel)
Insisted that the Bible be translated and made available for everyone to read; this was truly revolutionary Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther in early 1521, who was subsequently summoned to appear before the Diet of Worms
"Diet"= legislature of the German Empire from the 12th century to 1806
Held in Worms, Germany, in 1521 (Tikkanen, 'Diet of Worms')
Emperor Charles V presided over it
Resulted in the "Edict of Worms", which declared Luther a heretic and banned people from reading his literature
Luther went into hiding at Wartburg Castle ('Martin Luther,' BBC) Led to the creation of many various sects of Christianity popular today (Lutheran, Baptist, Methodist, Calvinist, etc.)
The term "Protestant" wasn't in use till 1539 ('Protestant, Merriam-Webster).
Surge in religion intolerance
Resulted in years of religious wars throughout Europe
"95 Theses." Theopedia. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Web. 10 Oct. 2012. <http://www.theopedia.com/95_Theses>.
Hunt, Lynn. "Struggles Over Beliefs." The Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures : A Concise History. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2010. 435-46. Print.
Irving, Arthur. "About Martin Luther." Martin Luther, the Reluctant Revolutionary. PBS, 2003. Web. 21 Oct. 2012.
"Protestant." Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 5 Oct. 2012. <http://mw3.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/protestantism>.
"The Reformation." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 21 Oct. 2012. <http://www.history.com/topics/reformation>.
Tikkanen, Amy. "Diet of Worms (Germany )." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica. Web. 21 Oct. 2012. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/649151/Diet-of-Worms>. November 10, 1483-February 18, 1546
German monk and priest who became disgusted with the Catholic Church
Advocated that it is not through the Church, but through the individual self that humans will find salvation (Irving, 'About Martin Luther').
"By the time he died in 1546, half of western Europe had renounced allegiance to the Roman Catholic church," (Hunt, 438). Effects of Calvinism 1509-1564; French religious reformer
Argued that the sacrament of communion, "was more than just symbolic but insisting that it was entirely in God's power, dependent neither on the priest nor on the individual's faith," (Hunt, 440).
Shared the belief with Martin Luther than only radical change could restore the true purpose of religion
Believed in the doctrine of "predestination," which asserted that everyone (man, woman, and child) was already predestined to either go to Heaven of Hell (Hunt, 442) John Calvin Catholic indulgence of Jeronimus Munghofer Luther's 95 Theses "Common Points' of Luther's arguments that were distributed widely Title page from "Institutes of Christian Religion," one of Calvin's most famous works, first published in 1536 Geneva, a city in Switzerland where Calvin had settled after being exiled from France, eventually became the nucleus of the Reformation, "the Calvinist movement spread to France, the Netherlands, England, Scotland, the German states, Poland, Hungary, and eventually New England, becoming the establish form of the Reformation in many of these countries," (Hunt, 443). Luther's Other Works Luther also wrote many other works on his beliefs. For example, he wrote works titled, "On Christian Liberty," "On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church," among others. The printing press was used to ensure that these were highly circulated and read.