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Transcript of Conjunction
What are conjunctions?
A conjunction is a word which is used to link or join words, phrases, or clauses.
In simple English:
A conjunction is like
. It helps things to
How to remember coordinating conjunctions:
or - used to show a relationship between things
nd - connects things that are alike or joined together
or - used to offer a negative choice
ut - used to connect things that are different or separated
r - used to offer a choice
et - used to show a change
o - used to show a relationship between things
Types of Conjunctions
Connect words, phrases and clauses of
went to school.
Victoria can sing
play the guitar
How to remember subordinating conjunctions:
B U D I S W I S E
Before Unless Despite In order that Since While If Since Even though
B U T H O T
Because Until That How Once Than
A A A
After Although (though) As
W W W
Whether When (Whenever) Where (Wherever)
We can use a combination of approaches to teach sentence functions
Students are given a text or book . Students find examples of sentence functions from text and write in a post it
Declarative statements - Blue
Exclamatory statements - Pink
Interrogative statents - Yellow
Connect ideas of
value e.g. independent clause with dependent clause
Approach - CLT, Discovery
A comma is used to lessen the importance of the first clause e.g.
When Josh woke up,
Abel jumped on him.
If no comma is used, the second clause is subordinate e.g. Abel jumped on Josh
when he woke up.
Why? Student can see the patterns in writing
Approach - Grammar translation,CLT, Audio-lingual
1. Silent way
2. Grammar translation method
3. Communicative Language Teaching
4. Total physical response
5. Audio-lingual method - dialogue
Students learn inflections when reading the different sentence functions.
Teacher reads sentences and students punctuate the sentences.
Why? Student familiarize themselves in spoken and written English
Approach - CLT, Audio-lingual etc.
Class is divided into 3 groups: Declarative, Interrogative, Exclamatory. 1 student from each group will role play a situation given by students.
Students later can write the
Why? Students can practice speaking and know how to use them in real-life situation.
The structure of a sentence refers to the types of parts in the sentence as well as the way(s) these parts are put together
words, phrases, or clauses
Joel have a girlfriend.
is Goerge's charm
many fall at her feet.
is Joanne intelligent,
How to remember correlating conjunctions:
both-and from-to whether-or
B C D E F G
as-as such-that not-but neither-nor
H I J K L M N O P
not only - but also
Q R S T U V
Y & Z
either-or as-so so-that
Now I know my A, B, C’s
if - then such - as between-and
Next time won’t you sing with me?
A car has one engine. It can move.
One independent clause
Susan had a cat.
A compound sentence consists of two or more independent clauses.
These clauses are connected either with a semi-colon or with a comma and coordinating conjunction.
Question Time :
What are coordinating conjunctions?
Toby wanted to become a doctor; he applied to medical
Toby wanted to become a doctor, so he applied to
Two independent clauses joined by a connective.
Susan had a cat
it was black.
A complex sentence consists of one independent clause connected to one or more dependent clauses.
Independent Clause - An independent clause can stand alone as a sentence. Here is an example: We walk to school. This sentence shows a complete thought and can stand alone.
Dependent Clause - A dependent clause cannot stand alone as a sentence. Here is an example: when the cake is done baking This clause does not express a complete thought and cannot stand alone.
A trailer has no engine. It cannot move on its own. It needs the car for it to move.
A car has an engine. It can move
One subordinate clause
One independent clause.
One independent clause joined by a connective to a
Susan has had a cat
she was young.
A simple sentence consists of a single independent clause.
Question time :
1) Joe drove.
2) Joe drove her car from Cape Town to Knysna
3) Joe drove her 13-year-old, rusty Toyota from Cape Town to Knysna on a rainy July day.
Neoh Joon Kee
S. Ranjeetha Siwajanam
Ashiah Zainot Rahim
Two cars have two engines . They both drive