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Chapter 1 - Psychology

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Shelby Brown

on 4 September 2012

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Transcript of Chapter 1 - Psychology

Psychology Mind Behavior Study of - inner experiences, perceptions, thoughts, memories, feelings - observable actions of human beings and nonhuman animals Nativism Philosophical view that certain knowledge is innate or inborn an example might be that of children in every culture learning that sounds form words, and that words can form sentences Plato (428-327 BC) Empiricism Philosophical view that all knowledge acquired through experience "tabula rasa" (blank slate) Aristotle (384-322 BC) 350 BC student of teacher of 0 AD 1600 Dualism Body and soul (brain and mind) are fundamentally different Rene Descartes (1595-1650) 1700 1800 1900 Phrenology Mental abilities and characteristics are localized in specific brain regions More traits/abilities = larger corresponding bumps on skull which could be measured (defunct theory) Franz Joseph Gall ( 1758-1828) Physiology Study of biological processes, especially the human body Hermann von Helmholtz
(1821-94)
estimated nerve impulse speed when he found that it took longer for people to respond to toe stimulation than to thigh stimulation Stimulus - sensory input from environment Reaction Time for applied measured Structuralism Approach to psychology that analyzes the basic elements that constitute the mind Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) history of used Introspection
subjective observation of one's own experience is a method of studying Consciousness
a person's subjective experience of the world and mind is an aspect of Functionalism Approach to psychology that studies the purpose mental processes serve in enabling people to adapt to their environment William James (1842-1910) Inspired by Natural Selection features that help an organism survive and reproduce are more likely than others to be passed on to subsequent generations Charles Darwin
(1809-82)
Credited with evolutionary theory
Wrote "Origin of Species" proposed Gestalt Psychology Approach to psychology that emphasizes that we often perceive the whole rather than the sum of parts diametrically opposed to Illusions Errors of perception, memory, or judgment in which subjective experience differs from objective reality lead to Psychoanalytic theory Freud's approach to psychology that emphasizes the importance of unconscious mental processes in shaping feelings, thoughts, and behaviors Unconsciousness
part of the mind that operates outside of awareness is an aspect of influences basis of Psychoanalysis therapy designed to understand psychological disorders by bringing to basis of Humanistic Psychology Approach to psychology that emphasizes the positive potential of human beings Behaviorism Approach to psychology that restricts itself to the scientific study of objectively observable behavior is concerned with is NOT concerned with - an action or physiological change Response elicited by - amount of time taken Reinforcement
likelihood of a behavior occurring again determined by consequences of Cognitive Psychology Scientific study of mental processes, including perception, thought, memory, and reasoning 1950 is concerned with is less concerned with Behavioral Neuroscience Approach to psychology that links psychological processes to activities in the nervous system and other bodily processes Cognitive Neuroscience Approach that attempts to understand links between cognitive processes and brain activity Evolutionary Psychology Approach that explains mind and behavior in terms of the adaptive value of abilities that are preserved over time is based on Cultural Psychology Studies how cultures reflect and shape the psychological processes of their members Social Psychology Studies the causes and consequences of interpersonal behavior https://docs.google.com/document/pub?id=15hPIaEbPCPLVPRGLPUr7D4cOcBf2dnPB4sAelMUnta4
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