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Reading Comprehension Strategies

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Kristen Tuttle

on 28 April 2014

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Transcript of Reading Comprehension Strategies

"Students need reading strategies to help them read a text" (Gonzalez, n.d.).
Looking more closely for deeper understanding
"There is abundant evidence that reading strategies improve reading comprehension"
What are Reading Strategies?
Reading Strategies Cont.
Close Reading
They are purposeful and cognitive actions taken to help students develop meaning and comprehension of a text
Help students before, during, and after they read
Can be built upon over time as texts become more difficult
Most often used in secondary and college classrooms
Lack of research of its effects at the elementary level
Focuses on teaching students to critically examine a text by:
Re-reading
Applying it to past knowledge
"Chunking" the text
Making annotations
Highlighting
EDUC 310
Kristen Tuttle
Vol XCIII, No. 311
What is Comprehension?
Leading to more automatic skills
The Importance of Teaching Reading Strategies
Comprehension involves reading with thinking and reasoning.
Readers who have strong comprehension are able to find out:
What's important
What's fact
What caused an event to happen
Etc.
(Reading Rockets, 2014)
"Strategies are essential, not only to successful comprehension, but to overcoming reading problems and becoming a better reader." (McNamara, 2001)
Different students face different obstacles when it comes to comprehension
Strategy instruction is really effective and helps students to overcome those obstacles
Strategies help give students a way to take on complex problems
With time, the strategies taught lead to more automatic skills
Reading Comprehension Strategies
The understanding and interpretation of what is read
Children have to be able to:
Decode
Make connections
Think deeply
*Students have to have sufficient vocabulary before they can understand what they have read.
(Reading Rockets, 2014).
Teaches students to:
Look deeply into the text to see the imagery or how the author feels
Analyze and interpret for themselves what the author is saying through a silent dialogue
It builds:
Comprehension
Critical thinking skills
Stamina and persistence when reading difficult texts (Fisher & Frey, 2012).
Close Reading refers to the reader's use of various strategies to interpret text meaning.
(McNamara, 2001)
Having a strong instructional core helps students with learning disabilities like:
Having daily reviews
Stating the instructional objective
Formative evaluations
The most effective approach in improving reading comprehension in students with learning disabilities is a combination of direct instruction and strategy instruction
It is important to teach strategies to students with learning disabilities because they can be unaware of reading strategies that good readers employ automatically when reading
Reading Comprehension for Students with Learning Disabilities
Reading Comprehension for Students with Learning Disabilities
In general, narrative texts (fiction) are easier to understand than expository texts (factual, informational)
The content of narratives is more familiar than the content of expository texts
The most effective strategy to develop comprehension in narrative texts is teaching them story grammar
Main Character
Outcome
Setting
Theme
Plot
Story grammar gives students an organizational guide and can be used in story maps
TELLS is another strategy
(T) study story titles; (E) examine and skim pages for clues as to what the story is about; (L) look for important words; (L) look for difficult words; (S) think about the setting (Gersten et al., 2001)
Ask "Who?" and "What's happening?"
Helping Them Understand Narrative and Expository Texts.
Narrative and Expository Texts Cont.
Comprehending expository texts is difficult for all students
It deals with less familiar content
The MULTIPASS strategy is an effective strategy in teaching all students how to comprehend expository texts
The student makes three passes through the passage being read:
The first pass is to become familiar with the main idea and organization
The second pass was to obtain specific information from the text by reading the questions at the end of the chapter, making guesses to what the answer might be, and then reading to find the correct answer
The third step is to self-test by answering each question with the newly required information
Students with learning disabilities experience unexpected failure to learn..."
(Gersten et al., 2001)
(Lassonde, 2009)
References
Reading Rockets (2014). Comprehension. Retrieved from www.ReadingRockets.org
Williams, J.P. (2014). Improving comprehension for students with LD. Retrieved from
www.ReadingRockets.org
Stanberry, K., Swanson, L. (2014). Effective reading interventions for kids with learning disabilities. Retrieved
from www.ReadingRockets.org
Lassonde, C. (2009). Recognizing a "different drum" through close-reading strategies. Retrieved from
journals.library.wisc.edu
Fisher, D., Frey, N. (2012). Close reading in elementary schools. Retrieved from www.americanreading.com
Gersten, R., Fuchs, L. S., Williams, J. P., Baker, S. (2001). Teaching reading comprehension strategies to students
with learning disabilities: A review of research. Retrieved from www.jstor.org
McNamara, D. S. (2009). The importance of teaching reading strategies.
Ball-Erickson, M. L. (2012). Effective reading comprehension strategies for students with autism spectrum
disorders in the elementary general education classroom. Retrieved from www.nmu.edu
Teaching Reading Comprehension to Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is defined as a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that occur in early childhood, usually by age 3
Characteristics of ASD include:
Impairments in verbal and nonverbal communication
Reciprocal social interaction
Occurrence of repetitive behaviors and constrained interests
Research has shown that there are three reading comprehension profiles for students with ASD:
Text bound Comprehenders (TBCs):Brought meaning to the text but didn't make any deeper interpretations
Strategic Comprehenders (SCs): Do well with comprehension questions and making personal connections, but struggle with responding to prediction questions
Imaginative Comprehenders (ICs): extremely visually oriented, relies heavily on picture cues to generater responses to comprehension questions, but have difficulty when unfamiliar passages are read in paragraph form. They also incorporate connections to favorite topics or items
ASD Comprehension Problems
Comprehension Methods for ASD students
(Ball-Erickson, 2012)
Conclusion
Comprehension is the very heart of reading and making sure our students can comprehend what they read is highly important.
Teachers can use strategy instruction to help those students that don't already have comprehension skills.
Each student is different, with different learning styles and abilities, and teachers have to make sure that they meet each student's needs.
"Educators must remember the importance of the unique learner and approach teaching reading comprehension with the mind frame of taking the time to understand the learner first and then dive into the effective strategies that may help promote growth in reading comprehension." (Ball-Erickson, 2012)
Students with ASD struggle with the 7 metacognitive strategies that all good readers use:
Monitoring for meaning
Using and creating schema
Asking questions
Determining importance
Inferring
Using sensory and emotional images
Synthesizing
ASD students struggle with making inferences when reading narrative texts, especially if the inference is abstract
For students with ASD, narrative texts are more difficult to read and comprehend than expository texts
Expository texts have set rules and definitions, and they don't rely on inference making. Whereas with a narrative text, the reader has to engage in a storyline, make predictions, synthesize with prior knowledge
The following methods have helped increase comprehension in students with ASD:
Assistive Technology: enables an individual with a learning disability to compensate for specific problems/deficits
Computer Assisted instruction: The use of technology has been found to fascinate students with ASD, so technology can be used as a link to academic enrichment
Direct Instruction: begins with an analysis of what is going to be taught and is then broken down into the smallest fractions possible to ensure understanding. Usually used when teaching complex skills.
Class-wide peer tutoring: a peer-mediated teaching strategy in which all students involved work together in tutor-learner pairs inside the classroom
Inclusive approach in the general education classroom, starting at an early age, provides an environment where the child can grow and learn beside their peers
Use of a KWL chart: (K) what the student knows about the focus topic; (W) what the student wants to know about the focus topic; (L) what the student learned about the focus topic. It gives them something visually concrete.
(Ball-Erickson, 2012)
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