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Electromagnetic Spectrum!!!!!!!!!

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Daamir Johnson

on 3 June 2015

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Transcript of Electromagnetic Spectrum!!!!!!!!!



Radio Waves
Band Range-
Frequencies from 3x10^11 Hz to as low as 3 x10^3Hz, and wavelengths ranging from 1 millimeter to 100 kilometers .
Wavelengths analogy:
100 km: ~215,726 average males standing shoulder to shoulder (18.25 avg shoulder span)
1 mm: ~⅔ of the thickness of a penny
Band Range-
Frequencies of 3x10^13 Hz to as low as 3x10^11 Hz, and wavelengths ranging from 1mm to 25um.
Wavelength analogy:
Thickness of the aluminum of a soda can: .0038in
25um: ~ .0026 of that thickness, or .26%
1 mm: ~10 pieces of paper stacked (1/10 mm avg. paper thickness)
Visible Light
Band Range:
consists of a spectrum of wavelengths that range from approximately 700 nm to approximately 400 nm. Expressed in more familiar units, the range of wavelengths extends from 7 x 10-7 meter to 4 x 10-7 meter. This narrow band of visible light is affectionately known as ROYGBIV.
Band Range-
Its Wavelength starts from 1mm and shortens to 750 nm.
Its Frequency ranges from .003 to 4x10^14 Hz.
Band Range:
Wavelengths in the range of 0.01 to 10 nm corresponding to the frequencies in the range of 30 petahertz to 30 exaherts (3×10^16 Hz to 3×10^19 Hz)
Gamma Rays
Background History
Radio Waves
Visible Light
Gamma Rays
Around 1819/1820, a Danish physicist called Hans Christian Oersted (1777–1851) showed that an electric wire would create a pattern of magnetism around it.
About a decade later, English chemist Michael Faraday (1791–1867) proved that the opposite could happen too—you could use magnetism to generate electricity—and that led him to develop the electric motors and electricity generators that now power our world.
Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell’s (1831–1879) theory of electromagnetism summarized and explained the mutuality between electricity and magnetism published in 1873.
About a decade after Maxwell's death, a brilliant German physicist named Heinrich Hertz (1857–1894) became the first person to produce electromagnetic waves in a laboratory which later made way for radio, television, and wireless internet.

Radio Waves (pics.)
Microwaves (pics.)
Infrared (pics.)
Visible Light (pics.)
X-Rays (pics.)
Gamma Rays (pics.)
Works Cited
Band Range-
UV light have shorter wavelengths than visible light, they are invisible to the human eye but interestingly some insects such as bumble bees are able to see them. UV radiation is derived from the Sun and is subdivided into classifications:
UV-B are carcinogenic and have potential to damage cells and DNA however 95% of UV-B rays are absorbed by the ozone
UV-C are the most dangerous but thankfully are absorbed by our atmosphere
Practical Applications
confirm the validity of banknotes and identity cards
UV kill microbes with UV lamps used at hospitals for effectively sterilizing surgical equipment, water, and air in operating rooms
used to treat acne and psoriasis
food and drug companies also sterilize equipment uses germicidal lamps
suitable doses of UV provides vitamin D for skin
UV light is used by astronomers in order to observe and record the UV from astronomical objects such as planets in our solar system, stars, nebulae and galaxies enables us to gain extra information such as the temperature and chemical composition of these objects.
Objects in Space-
Astronomical objects emit radio waves.
Physicists and chemists can understand the motion and composition of the emitting objects
For example, Hydrogen.
Practical Applications-
Technology and Industry
Wireless Devices
Headphones , remote controllers, television, radio communication, phones
Radar, GPS, Scanners/Security Screening, Body Tissue Heating
Space exploration
Radio Telescopes
High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP)
EKG Monitoring
Danger to Humans-
2 Interesting Facts-
Radio waves are believed to have started as gamma rays from the big bang and have lost energy since then.
Radio waves were first used to detect and locate objects, which gave radars their name, Radio Detection and Ranging
Objects in Space-
Microwaves are radio waves of extremely high frequency. These are also emitted by stars, which helps scientists know the motion and composition of stars.
Practical Applications-
Technology / Industry
Cooking, phones, fixed traffic speed cameras, radars, and meteorology
Danger to Humans-
Causes cataracts, or the clouding of the eye lenses.
Leads to reduced or no vision.
May damage parts of a developing brain. (phones)
2 Interesting Facts-
Do you know how microwave ovens work?
Microwaves can penetrate haze, light rain and snow, clouds and smoke, and are good for viewing the Earth from space.
Objects in Space-
Infrared Astronomy- since everything that has a temperature emits infrared radiation, infrared can be used to study and view all celestial bodies.
Practical Applications-
Thermal Imaging
Remote Controls- send a "message" out to electronic devices
Fiber-Optic Cables and Audio
Danger to Humans-
Prolonged exposure (many years) can irreversibly haze the eyes
2 Interesting Facts-
"Red-Shift" in celestial objects can only be determined by using infrared because that is the wave they turn into by the time they reach Earth.
Everything gives off heat, thus using infrared is very useful since it tracks heat emission. It is widely used due to this case in ghost hunting; in which spirits or other-worldly entities give off a colder heat signature then the normal human body.
"Electromagnetic Spectrum - Wavelength, Frequency, And Energy, Wavelength Regions." - Light, Radiation, Visible, and Rays. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 May 2015.
"Electromagnetic Spectrum." - Types of Electromagnetic Waves Compared. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 May 2015.
"National Aeronautics and Space Administration." Electromagnetic Spectrum. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 May 2015.
Science Mission Directorate. "Ultraviolet Waves"Mission:Science. 2010. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 29 May. 2015
"NASA Science." Ultraviolet Waves. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 May 2015.
"Ultra Violet." The Electromagnetic Spectrum: Ultra Violet. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 May 2015.
Radio Waves-
"Radio Waves." The Electromagnetic Spectrum: Radio Waves. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 May 2015.
"RADIO WAVES." Radio. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 May 2015.
"NASA Science." Radio Waves. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 May 2015.
Lucas, By Jim. "What Are Radio Waves?" LiveScience. TechMedia Network, 06 Apr. 2015. Web. 31 May 2015.
"Electro Magnetic Spectrum." Electro Magnetic Spectrum. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 May 2015.
"Microwaves." The Electromagnetic Spectrum:. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 May 2015.
Visible Light-
The Electromagnetic and Visible Spectra. The Physics Classroom. Web. 31 May 2015
Science Mission Directorate. "Visible Light" Mission:Science. 2010. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 31 May. 2015
"Infrared." Electromagnetic Spectrum. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 May 2015.
"INFRARED ASTRONOMY - Overview." INFRARED ASTRONOMY - Overview. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 May 2015.
"Infrared Waves: Definition, Uses & Examples." Study. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 May 2015.
"FAQ: Ultraviolet, Visible and Infrared Radiation Hazards." FAQ: Ultraviolet, Visible and Infrared Radiation Hazards. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 May 2015.
Science Mission Directorate. "X-Rays" Mission:Science. 2010. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Web. 31 May. 2015
Boundless. “X-Rays.” Boundless Physics. Boundless, Web. 31 May. 2015.
Gamma Rays-
"David Terr's Website." The Electromagnetic Spectrum. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 May 2015.
Redd, Nola Taylor. "Strange Gamma-Ray Objects in Space Baffle Scientists | Fermi Space Telescope | Space.com." N.p., n.d. Web. 31 May 2015.
"Gamma-rays." Gamma-rays. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 May 2015.
BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 31 May 2015.
"NASA Science." Gamma Rays. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 May 2015.
Band Range-
These are the most energetic forms of electromagnetic radiation
There frequency is the highest at 3x10^19 Hz or 30 EHz and higher
There wavelength is the shortest at 10^-11 m or 10 pm and lower.
Objects in Space-
Gamma Ray Astronomy- Utilizing Telescopes that emit gamma rays to pinpoint gamma ray emissions from celestial objects; usually supernova remnants or pulsars.
A majority of gamma ray emissions are unidentified. Necessary for z-factor rendering.
Practical Applications-
Gamma Ray Astronomy
Treating Cancer and Sterilization
Creating Radioisotopes
Turning people green
Danger to Humans-
It's radioactive.
Cell damage and cancer.
Can cause mutation in tissue.
2 Interesting Facts-
Viewing through High Energy Gamma Rays the moon is brighter than the sun.
The Vela satellite picked up gamma ray burst from deep space.
Objects in Space:
Many things in space emit X-rays, among them are black holes, neutron stars, binary star systems, supernova remnants, stars, the Sun, and even some comets!
Practical Applications:
Airport security
Medical imaging
Radiation therapy
Dangers to humans:
Can destroy living tissue and can cause severe skin burns on human flesh exposed for too long a time.
2 Interesting Facts:
In 1895, Thomas Edison investigated materials' ability to fluoresce when exposed to X-rays, and found that calcium tungstate was the most effective substance. Around March 1896, the fluoroscope he developed became the standard for medical X-ray examinations.
German physicist Wilhelm Röntgen is usually credited as the discoverer of X-rays in 1895, because he was the first to systematically study them, though he is not the first to have observed their effects. He is also the one who gave them the name "X-rays
Objects in Space
The Sun is the dominant source for visible-light waves our eyes receive. The outer-most layer of the Sun's atmosphere, the corona, can be seen in visible light
Practical Applications:
Mobile Connectivity
Lights (Traffic, LED, Fluorescent)
2 Interesting Facts:
Isaac Newton's experiment in 1665 showed that a prism bends visible light and that each color refracts at a slightly different angle depending on the wavelength of the color.
Our Sun produces more yellow light than any other color because its surface temperature is 5,500°C.
Wavy Waves Are Wavy!!
Introduction to EM Spectrum
EM spectrum consists of different wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation
electromagnetic radiation can be a described as stream of photons which are the smallest unit of light/em energy and can be expressed in wavelengths (m), frequencies (Hz), or energy (eV, electron-volts a common measure of energy in atomic physics)
source of energy is from the sun and other object in the universe that travel to earth in wave-shaped patterns of electricity and magnetism which are perpendicular to each other moving in the same direction at the speed of light (300,000 km/sec)
NASA's scientific instruments use the full range of the electromagnetic spectrum to study the Earth, the solar system, and the universe beyond.

Objects in Space
Young, hot stars produce a lot of ultraviolet light and bathe interstellar space with this energetic light.
Astronomers can learn the structure and evolution of galaxies by comparing the visible light images of galaxies which are mostly red or yellow light of older stars and UV images of galaxies which glow blue from the newly formed clouds of stars that are more massive than the sun
NASA’s SDO spacecraft captured this image of extreme ultraviolet radiation. The false colors represent the different gas temperatures. Reds are relatively cool (about 60,000 Celsius) while blues and greens are hotter (greater than one million Celsius).
Danger to Humans
Overexposure can cause damage to the retina, skin cancer, and sunburn
potentially destroy plants
ozone depletion
Interesting Facts
In 1801, Johann Ritter discovered and proved the existence of UV light by conducting an experiment with photographic paper and exposing it to light beyond violet.
Ultraviolet Light Absorbers (UVAs) are molecules used in organic materials (polymers, paints, etc).
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