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INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENTS IN AFRICA
Transcript of INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENTS IN AFRICA
Independence movements in Africa
KENYA AND JOMO KENYATTA
British protectorate 1895
British colony established in 1920
Mau Mau rebellion 1952
First black president in South Africa (1994-1999)
Made negotiations with the last president, which ended the apartheid system of racial segregation
Initiated a peaceful transfer to majority rule
Established 1995 Truth and Reconciliation Commission
Saw the enactment of a new democratic constitution
Founding member of the Elders
Promoted conflict resolution and problem-solving throughout the world
Peaceful and Violent Revolutions After WWII
42 different ethnic groups
Bantu- Bantu speakers
Interaction between groups
Conflicts over resources
Arabs traders (VII century)
Towns in the coasts: Mombasa
Omani regime in 1600s
Swahili attempt to resists
1885 Germans and British arrive
Abolition of slavery
Berlin conference: division of East Africa
1895 East African Protectorate, 1920 British colony
Life under the British
Centralized British government: no representation
African land occupied by settlers
Exploitation and trade of resources and raw materials
Construction of railway
Africans over 18: hut tax
Africans over 16: poll tax
Abolition of slavery, but establishment of forced labor or wage labor.
The British conquered African tribes
Punished if opposed
ALL OF THOSE CONDITIONS LED TO AFRICAN RESENTMENT AND OPPOSITION
1952- MAU MAU REBELLION
Belongs to the Kikuyu tribe
Traveled abroad, studied in Universities in London and Moscow.
Very involved in the conditions of his country
Published articles and pamphlets about the plight of Kenyans under colonial rule.
After World War II, he became an outspoken nationalist
Demanded self-government and independence form Britain.
1945, organized the fifth Pan-African Congress in England
1947- became president of KANU
Traveled around Kenya giving lectures and campaigning for independence.
Resentment of imperial rule and economic exploitation
Allowed to participate in elections
1963- declaration of independence.
Pride in African cultures and heritage
Effect of World War II on Independence Movements in Africa
Algeria War of Independence from France
Japanese victories in Asia shattered the west's reputation
African troops fought Axis armies in Africa, the Middle East, etc.
Soldiers returned home to discrimination and second class citizens
Ex-soldiers joined the nationalists movements
Workers in defense industry during war joined nationalists
In the decades after World War II, nationalists demanded freedom and the power to control their own destinies.
In 1945, Britain, France, Belgium, and Portugal controlled most of Africa
Since 1945, more than 50 new nations have been born in Africa.
New leaders and new governments
Build strong central governments
Achieve economic growth
Raise the standards of living
The new leaders tried to...
Modernization was not easy
Lack of technology
Europeans reluctant to fight in overseas colonies
Imperialist powers introduced political reforms that would gradually lead to independence
India won independence in 1947, example to follow in Africa
Most western educated
Kwame Nkrumah in Gold Coast
Jomo Kenyatta in Kenya
Leopold Seghor in Senegal
Organized political parties
Newspapers, mass rallies, mobilized popular support...
Demonstrations, strikes, and boycotts
Africa and the cold war: influence of superpower rivalry during the Cold War
War of liberation from 1954 to 1962
Civil War between loyalist Algerian Muslims who still believed in a French Algeria and their insurrectionist Algerian counterparts
France conquered Algeria after a brutal struggle during the 1830s.
French saw it as part of their country
Millions of Europeans settled there
Arab-Berber people oppressed
Muslim Algerian nationalists set up the National Liberation Front (NLF)
1954- NLF turned to guerrilla warfare.
French had just lost Vietnam: unwilling to retreat form Algeria.
Half million French troops
Hundreds of thousands of Algerians died
De Gaulle offered independence to all colonies except for Algeria.
Fifth Republic: elections. De Gaulle elected President.
Eventually wanted to retreat from Algeria
White settlers opposed
End of War
Public opinion in France turned against the war
Chales de Gaulle became president in 1958 and began talks to end war.
1962 Algeria won its Freedom
Many African nations supported the nonaligned movement.
Leaders who were anti-communist received western aid and support
Rival superpowers drawn into African conflicts.
Soviet and American-supported forces took part in the liberation struggles in Southern Africa.
For example, In the Horn of Africa, Superpowers became involved in a war between Ethiopia and Somalia.
Elsewhere, they supplied arms to governments they favored.
They helped increase the power of the military.
1995 Truth and Reconciliation Commission
Investigated human rights violations under apartheid (abductions, killings, torture, etc)
Introduced housing, education, and economic development initiatives, which were designed to improve living standard for blacks
Covered violation by the state and liberation movements
Allowed commission to hold special hearings focused on specific sectors, institutions, and individuals
The Constitution of South Africa
Human Rights and Freedoms
Equality (no racialism or sexism)
Freedom of expression and association
Political and property rights
Access to information
Access to courts
Right to use the language and participate in cultural life of choice (but cannot be inconsistent with any provision of Bill of Rights)
11 official languages provided for, with specific attention paid to Khoi, Nama, and San languages, and sign language
Stress on interaction between national, provincial, and local levels through cooperative governance
Describes how representatives are elected, the limitations on terms of office, and the majorities required to pass legislation
Right to Self Determination
Given top priority with the UN Charter written in 1945
"Right of a people to control their own social and political and cultural destiny, identity, and development"
Reflects the priority of the world community to get rid of racism and colonialism for entire societies, as well as individuals
Led by Kwame Nkrumah
"Freedom Now" from British rule
Used "Positive Action" movement
Strikes and boycotts
Independence granted in 1957; first Sub-Saharan nation to gain independence
Formation of Organization of African Unity (OAU) in 1963
Both Peaceful and Violent Revolutions
Both Peaceful and Violent Revolutions
Led by Patrice Lumumba and Mobutu Sese Seko
Wanted to gain independence from Belgium, and create a national party that represented and united the Congo (Movement National Congolais (MNC))
Wanted to create a constitution and have free elections
Used anti-colonial strikes and riots against Belgium
After winning independence, Lumumba's government is overthrown by a coup during the Congo Crisis; imprisoned and murdered
Resulted in Mobutu Sese Seko taking over the nation in 1965 and ruling as a military dictator for 32 years
Led by Jomo Kenyatta
Wanted independence from Britain
Wanted to unite all Kenyans, Kikuyu, and non-Kikuyu, and get back fertile highland farmland
Harambee "Pull Together" peaceful protest
Mau Mau Rebels- violent campaign
Kenya gains independence in 1963
Kenyatta is the first president
Ethnic groups continue to work together
Kenya and Algeria
Led by Ahmed Ben Bella
Wanted independence from French
Wanted Arab nationalism
They established the National Liberation Front (FLN)
Used violence, guerilla warfare, terrorism, and torture
Had an 8 year civil war (1954-1962)
Algeria won its independence in 1962, with around 300,000 deaths
Led by Dr. Agostinho Neto, chosen by the Popular Movement for the Lberation of Angola (MPLA)
Wanted independence from Portugal
War of independence began in 1961
UNITA disputed MPLA's rule, so civil war broke out
Soviet Union/Cuba supported Marxist MPLA
US/South Africa supported anti-communist UNITA
Ahmed Ben Bella became the first president of Algeria
Up to 1.5 million lives lost
Shifted to multiparty democracy with free elections in 1992
Mau Mau Rebellion
West Africa contained many peaceful transitions after independence movements within French and British west Africa
Struggle Against Apartheid
Apartheid means "separateness"
Was a system of governance that discriminated against black South Africans
There were separate schools, buses, shops, hospitals, etc for blacks and colored people
Nelson Mandela worked with the ANC (African National Council) to go against apartheid using passive resistance
That didn't work, so he made plans to bomb places of significance to apartheid, but then was tried for treason and sentenced to prison where he stayed for 27 years
When he was released, he immediately continued his work and teachings, and he went on to become the first black president of South Africa, where he ended apartheid
Secret society aiming to throw whites settlers away from the country
Began in 1952, violent rebellion
First directed against the Africans who collaborated with the Colony, loyalists
Kenyatta was jailed for participating
After Independence was won
Kenyatta centralized power
Nothing was done to protect the interests of the minority and poorer tribes.
The dominance of the Kikuyu increased in business, civil service, etc.
1964- KADU merged with KANU- single party state with Kenyatta as absolute leader.
Control of media, detention, careful appointment of government jobs
1969 and 1974 reelected. Economic success.
1981- Moi second president. Economy deteriorated.
Contradictions- liberalism, corruption, and authoritarianism.