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convergence

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on 26 March 2010

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Transcript of convergence

Convergence Culture
Mainstream
Grassroots
Competitions
Collaboration
Corporatism
creativity
Actuality
Potentiality
Individuality
Collectivity
vs.
vs.
vs.
vs.
vs.
Social Protocols
Cultural intermediaries
Labor
Self-Promotion
Top down corporate drive process
bottom up consumer driven process
immaterial labor by Hardt and Negri
affective labor
free labor
by Henry Jenkins
Youtube.com
Secondlife.com
Indabamusic.com
Virtual Ethnography
Interviews
texual analysis
blog survey
trade magazines
news articles
Convergence Culture by Henry Jenkins
“Media convergence is more than simply a technological shift.” “Convergence is both a top-down corporate-driven process and a bottom- up consumer-driven process.”
Broad Research Questions:
How do musicians and the industry work together? How do musicians and the music industry impact one another?
What has changed, remained, and transitioned as new forms of practice?
Bourdieu (1986)
Social Capital
Cultural Capital
Economic Capital
Symbolic Capital
Cultural Intermediaries
Bourdieu (1993) and Negus (2002) “those workers who come in-between creative artists and consumers”DJs, A&R, accountants, lawyers, talent scout, MTV programmers, critics, club promoters and etc.

In convergence culture---the staff members of certain social networking sites, everyday citizens, judges of competitions
Self Promotion
playing live in a venue
handing out flyers in person
recruiting streeteams


Today self-promotion is also linked to branding and individualistic endeavors that do rely on the social media.
Social Protocols

Jenkins "as long as the focus remains on access, reform remains focused on technologies; as soon as we begin talking about participation, the emphasis shifts to cultural protocols and practices"

The differing types of norms now need to be addressed and analyzed.

Prior to 2004/2005, social protocols=> more face to face context

Today, a heavier emphasis is placed on creating online presences and brands.
Year 2004
“Cultivating a sense of mystique and self-sufficiency creates interest. Asking people to confirm your musical direction and ability only puts you at another’s mercy and almost invites criticism. Desperation is the ultimate turn off and the ultimate fear. Bluffing is all about playing it cool and pretending that you don’t want what you want.” by Justin Goldberg (2004) in The Ultimate Survival Guide to the New Music Industry Handbook for Hell.
Year 2008

"..Make sure you “personalize” your correspondence in some small way…Be sure to add a little humor and self-deprecation. It loosens their guard and makes them slightly more willing to give your work a listen….You can sugar coat the message all you want, but at the end of the day, you’re still bargaining for the cooperation of the user. Always remember to thank them, whether or not they decide to give their attention to your work….Once again, this example of good online etiquette is absolutely critical. You ARE looking for friends after all” (p. 75-76). By Nicky Kalliongis (2008)MySpace Music Profit Monster!: Proven Online Marketing Strategies.

popularity
aesthetic tastes
cultural values
high and low
mainstream and grassroots
cultural intermdiaries
ratings and rankings
social protocols
democracy
empowerment vs. exploitation
actual vs. potential
judgment culture by Jack Bratich
competition vs. collaboration
John Fiske
Stuart Hall
Adorno
Labor
self as a form of commodification
mainstream vs. grassroots
manipulated
individuality
vs. collectivity
Labor

immaterial labor by Lazzarato (1996)

"social interaction and cooperation"

affective labor by Hardt and Negri (2000)
"caring labor"

free labor by Terranova (2004)
"simultaneously voluntarily given and unwaged,
enjoyed and exploited"
MySpace.com

Popularity can be manipuated through paid services
Hegemony
How do musicians labor to gain popularity on social networking sites? What kind of social protocols are learned and adopted by the site users?
What is the role of cultural intermediaries and how have they, or have they impacted the aesthetic tastes connected to the convergence culture?
How does the emphasis on self-promotion and the merging of corporate and grassroots sector on the social networking sites affect our cultural values?
Two common ways to gain success (Frith, 1988)

Pyramid- working from bottom up
Starts with hard work and determination
Each rung of ladder possesses " a different sets
of gatekeepers" or cultural intermediaries
"stardom in this model is permanent"
Talent Pools
luck
irrational
random
"success itself is fragmented,
unearned and impermanent"
Frith (1988, p. 113)
MySpace.com
Blog survey
Textual Analysis
Discourse Analysis of "how to" books
Mini case study of Tila Tequila
Newspaper articles, Trade publications
YouTube.com
News articles, trade publications
Mini case studies of musicians
"how to" book
Textual analysis
Competition
Second Life.com
Virtual ethnography of 10 live music concerts
Discourse analysis of the forums
Textual analysis of slusic.com (social music network
for Second Life)
News articles
Indabamusic.com
News articles
Interview with co founder
Dan Zaccagnino
Blog survey
Textual analysis of the website
Forums of Yo Yo Ma competition
MySpace Findings
Serious Labor- adding friends and networking
" The bottomline is that it takes work to generate interest, in real world and online" (guitarist)
Tila Tequila- 247
MySpace Findings
"I do not feel competitive and personally use
MySpace to work out musical ideas in order to
gauge responses from listeners..." (Helm, 2008)
YouTube Findings

"Getting on YouTube, I never expected
it to actually land me a record deal"
-Zee Avi

"Randy put our videos on YouTube
just for fun, just so we could relive the
glory of our days. We did not expect it to
lead to a record deal" -Straight No Chaser

Social networking sites "produce inventories
of branded selves; their logic encourages
users to see themselves and others as
commodity- signs to be collected and
consumed in the social market place"
(Hearn, 2008)
"I was one of the first artists to have a
YouTube account, if not the first. I
faked it until I made it" --Soulja Boy

A year after the OK No CD was released
182 % jump on Billboard's digital album chart

Second Life Findings
Paid labor, promotions, booking managers
A woman earns $10,000 a year playing gigs on SL
Daniel Kreps from Nashville got signed to a Reality Entertainment Label
Social Protocols

Indabamusic Findings
"We often work with major artists, labels, management
groups and so on to run innovative marketing campaigns
for them, while creating great opportunities for artists
in our community." (Zaccagnino, personal communication,
March 13, 2009)

"I agree that there should not be a voting system.
I plan to enter a contest soon and I asked my students
to vote for me, which is wrong" (Titus, 2008)

I
Implications
Empowerment vs. Exploitation
Andrejevic (2008)
Creativity vs. Commerce
Creative self promotion?
Individuality vs. Collectivity
Individual?
Mainstream vs. Grassroots
Authenticity of ordinariness
Actual vs. Potential
Ranking system by MySpace member
Over optimistic?
Corporatism vs. Community
How long?
Invasion of Community spaces, Youtube copyright battles
Competitions vs. Collaborations
YouTube competitions, 50th Grammy Award
YouTube Orchestra
Emergence of collective aesthetic tastes

Limitations
Temporality
Lack of Participations
Genres
Future Research Directions
Social Media
artists communities
religious/spiritual communities
self fashioning
celebrity culture
Twitter and Fame
'aura'
digital faith
globalization
hybridity, localization
musicians
psychological impact=> addiction, narcissism
'aesthetics of existence' by Foucault
journalism
cultural productions
classical musicians
genres, self promotion
*timeless/timely, invisible/visible*
Bourdieu
popularity
cultural intermediaries
social protocols
labor
self promotion
popularity
aesthetic tastes
cultural values
mobile media
social protocols
trajectories of
winners of competitions
divergences
virtual music performances
Symbolic capital, Cultural Capital, Economic Capital
Pierre Bouridieu
Cultural Capital,
Social Capital,
Symbolic Capital
Economic Capital

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