Send the link below via email or IMCopy
Present to your audienceStart remote presentation
- Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
- People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
- This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
- A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
- Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article
Transcript of convergence
Top down corporate drive process
bottom up consumer driven process
immaterial labor by Hardt and Negri
by Henry Jenkins
Convergence Culture by Henry Jenkins
“Media convergence is more than simply a technological shift.” “Convergence is both a top-down corporate-driven process and a bottom- up consumer-driven process.”
Broad Research Questions:
How do musicians and the industry work together? How do musicians and the music industry impact one another?
What has changed, remained, and transitioned as new forms of practice?
Bourdieu (1993) and Negus (2002) “those workers who come in-between creative artists and consumers”DJs, A&R, accountants, lawyers, talent scout, MTV programmers, critics, club promoters and etc.
In convergence culture---the staff members of certain social networking sites, everyday citizens, judges of competitions
playing live in a venue
handing out flyers in person
Today self-promotion is also linked to branding and individualistic endeavors that do rely on the social media.
Jenkins "as long as the focus remains on access, reform remains focused on technologies; as soon as we begin talking about participation, the emphasis shifts to cultural protocols and practices"
The differing types of norms now need to be addressed and analyzed.
Prior to 2004/2005, social protocols=> more face to face context
Today, a heavier emphasis is placed on creating online presences and brands.
“Cultivating a sense of mystique and self-sufficiency creates interest. Asking people to confirm your musical direction and ability only puts you at another’s mercy and almost invites criticism. Desperation is the ultimate turn off and the ultimate fear. Bluffing is all about playing it cool and pretending that you don’t want what you want.” by Justin Goldberg (2004) in The Ultimate Survival Guide to the New Music Industry Handbook for Hell.
"..Make sure you “personalize” your correspondence in some small way…Be sure to add a little humor and self-deprecation. It loosens their guard and makes them slightly more willing to give your work a listen….You can sugar coat the message all you want, but at the end of the day, you’re still bargaining for the cooperation of the user. Always remember to thank them, whether or not they decide to give their attention to your work….Once again, this example of good online etiquette is absolutely critical. You ARE looking for friends after all” (p. 75-76). By Nicky Kalliongis (2008)MySpace Music Profit Monster!: Proven Online Marketing Strategies.
high and low
mainstream and grassroots
ratings and rankings
empowerment vs. exploitation
actual vs. potential
judgment culture by Jack Bratich
competition vs. collaboration
self as a form of commodification
mainstream vs. grassroots
immaterial labor by Lazzarato (1996)
"social interaction and cooperation"
affective labor by Hardt and Negri (2000)
free labor by Terranova (2004)
"simultaneously voluntarily given and unwaged,
enjoyed and exploited"
Popularity can be manipuated through paid services
How do musicians labor to gain popularity on social networking sites? What kind of social protocols are learned and adopted by the site users?
What is the role of cultural intermediaries and how have they, or have they impacted the aesthetic tastes connected to the convergence culture?
How does the emphasis on self-promotion and the merging of corporate and grassroots sector on the social networking sites affect our cultural values?
Two common ways to gain success (Frith, 1988)
Pyramid- working from bottom up
Starts with hard work and determination
Each rung of ladder possesses " a different sets
of gatekeepers" or cultural intermediaries
"stardom in this model is permanent"
"success itself is fragmented,
unearned and impermanent"
Frith (1988, p. 113)
Discourse Analysis of "how to" books
Mini case study of Tila Tequila
Newspaper articles, Trade publications
News articles, trade publications
Mini case studies of musicians
"how to" book
Virtual ethnography of 10 live music concerts
Discourse analysis of the forums
Textual analysis of slusic.com (social music network
for Second Life)
Interview with co founder
Textual analysis of the website
Forums of Yo Yo Ma competition
Serious Labor- adding friends and networking
" The bottomline is that it takes work to generate interest, in real world and online" (guitarist)
Tila Tequila- 247
"I do not feel competitive and personally use
MySpace to work out musical ideas in order to
gauge responses from listeners..." (Helm, 2008)
"Getting on YouTube, I never expected
it to actually land me a record deal"
"Randy put our videos on YouTube
just for fun, just so we could relive the
glory of our days. We did not expect it to
lead to a record deal" -Straight No Chaser
Social networking sites "produce inventories
of branded selves; their logic encourages
users to see themselves and others as
commodity- signs to be collected and
consumed in the social market place"
"I was one of the first artists to have a
YouTube account, if not the first. I
faked it until I made it" --Soulja Boy
A year after the OK No CD was released
182 % jump on Billboard's digital album chart
Second Life Findings
Paid labor, promotions, booking managers
A woman earns $10,000 a year playing gigs on SL
Daniel Kreps from Nashville got signed to a Reality Entertainment Label
"We often work with major artists, labels, management
groups and so on to run innovative marketing campaigns
for them, while creating great opportunities for artists
in our community." (Zaccagnino, personal communication,
March 13, 2009)
"I agree that there should not be a voting system.
I plan to enter a contest soon and I asked my students
to vote for me, which is wrong" (Titus, 2008)
Empowerment vs. Exploitation
Creativity vs. Commerce
Creative self promotion?
Individuality vs. Collectivity
Mainstream vs. Grassroots
Authenticity of ordinariness
Actual vs. Potential
Ranking system by MySpace member
Corporatism vs. Community
Invasion of Community spaces, Youtube copyright battles
Competitions vs. Collaborations
YouTube competitions, 50th Grammy Award
Emergence of collective aesthetic tastes
Lack of Participations
Future Research Directions
Twitter and Fame
psychological impact=> addiction, narcissism
'aesthetics of existence' by Foucault
genres, self promotion
winners of competitions
virtual music performances
Symbolic capital, Cultural Capital, Economic Capital