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John F. Kennedy

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Transcript of John F. Kennedy

SOAPSTone
Causes of the Crisis
Rhetorical Devices
John F. Kennedy
Cuban Missile Crisis Speech

Pathos
"An emotional appeal that persuades an audience by apealing to their emotions." ("Pathos Ethos Logos")
Ethos
Logos
"An appeal to logic that deals with facts or statistics to convince an audience using reason." (Rhetorical Appeals-Writing Commons")


" A Handbook of Rhetorical Devices, Page 6" A Handbook of Rhetorical Devices, Page 6 N.d., n.d. Web. 08. Apr. 2014

"American Rhetoric: John F. Kennedy - Cuban Missile Crisis Address to the Nation." American Rhetoric: John F. Kennedy
- Cuban Missile Crisis Address to the Nation. American Rhetoric, 2001. Web. 03 Apr. 2014.

"Cuban Missile Crisis." - John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Apr. 2014. <

"Cuban Missile Crisis: Summary." ThinkQuest. Oracle Foundation, n.d. Web. 6 Apr. 2014.

"Diction." Literary Devices. N.p., n.d. Web. 07. Apr. 2014

"Examples of Ethos, Logos, and Pathos." Examples of Ethos, Logos, and Pathos. Love to Know Corp., 2014. Web. 06
Apr. 2014.

"Life of John F. Kennedy." - John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Apr. 2014.

"Literary Devices." Literary Devices. N.p. n.d. Web. 08. Apr. 2014

"Rhetorical Appeals - Writing Commons." Writing Commons. N.p., 2008. Web. 06 Apr. 2014.

"Rhetorical Devices." Rhetorical Devices. N.p., n.d. Web.08 Apr. 2014

"U.S. Advantage | Cuban Missile Crisis | National Curriculum | Schools & Colleges | National Cold War Exhibition." U.S.
Advantage | Cuban Missile Crisis | National Curriculum | Schools & Colleges | National Cold War Exhibition. N.p.,
n.d. Web. 6 Apr. 2014.

"Unique Facts About the Caribbean: Cuban Missle Crisis." Unique Facts About the Caribbean: Cuban Missle Crisis.
N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Apr. 2014.

Picture Citations

-CIA Reference Photograph of Soviet Medium-range Ballistic Missile. N.d. Red Square, Moscow. By National Security Archive.
-Cuban Missile Crisis 1962. N.d. N.p. By Mapshop.com.
-Holt, Rinehart, Winston. The Threat of Cuban Missiles, 1962. N.d. N.p.
-Maximum Range of Cuban Missiles. N.d. Cold War-a Brief History. Web. 8 Apr. 2014.
-President Kennedy Meets with Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko in the Oval Office. 1962. The Potential Cuban War- The Cuban Missile Crisis. Web. 8 Apr. 2014
-President Kennedy Delivering the Address on TV. N.d. N.p. By History Place.
-Stanziola, Phil. 800 Women Strikers for Peace. 1962. Miscellaneous Items in High Demand, n.p.
-Soviet Missile Installation in Cuba. N.d. N.p. By JFK Lancer.
-14 Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis. N.d. N.p. By ThinkQuest Team 11046.
Works Cited
Introduction
History of the Cuban Missile Crisis
"An ethical appeal used to convince the audience of the speakers or authors credibility or charcter." (Rhetorical Appeals-Writing Commons")
Ethos in the Cuban Missile Crisis Speech
"I have directed the Armed Forces to prepare for any eventualities; and I trust that in the interest of both the Cuban people and the Soviet technicians at the sites, the hazards to all concerned of ocntinuing this threat will be recognized. . . We have no wish to war with the Soviet Union -- for we are a peaceful people who desire to live in peace with all other peoples." (Kennedy par. 15)
Ethos in the Cuban Missile Crisis
"I speak to you as a friend, as one eho knows of your deep attachment to your fatherland, as one who shares your aspirations for liberty and justice for all." (Kennedy par. 23)
Pathos in the Cuban Missile Crisis Speech
". . . I have watched and the American people have watched with deep sorrow how your nationalist revolution was betrayed -- and how your fatherland fell under foreign dominion." (Kennedy par. 24)
Pathos in the Cuban Missile Crisis Speech
"Now your leaders are no longer Cuban leaders inspired by Cuban ideals. They are puppets and agents of an international conspiracy which has turned Cuba againsy your friends and neighbors in the Americas. . . most Cubans today look forward to the tine when they will be truly free -- free from foreign dominion, free to choose their own leaders, free to select their own sysytem, free to own their own land, free to speak and write and worship without fear or degregation." (Kennedy par. 23)
Logos in the Cuban Missile
Crisis Speech
Logos in the Cuabn Missile
Crisis Speech
Ethos, Pathos, and Logos
"The missile sites "include medium range ballistic missiles, capable of carrying a nuclear warhead for a distance of more than 1,000 nautical miles. Each of these missiles, in short, is capable of striking Washington, D. C., the Panama Canal, Cape Canaveral, Mexico City, or any other city in the southeastern part of the United States, in Central America, or in the Caribbean area." (Kennedy par. 3)
"On my honor, I have been academically honest."
-Victoria Pajak
"Only last Thursday, as evidence of this rapid offensive buildup was already in my hand, Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko told me in my office that he was instructed to make it clear once again, as he said his government had already done, that Soviet assistance to Cuba, and I quote, 'pursued solely the purpose of contributing to the defense capabilities of Cuba'." (Kennedy par. 7)
"On my honor, I have been academically honest."
"On my honor, I have been academically honest."
Speaker:
John Fitzgerald Kennedy
Occasion:
October 22, 1962
radio/television address
("John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum")
Audience:
Americans
("Response to the U.S.")
Purpose:
Kennedy wanted to inform the public and tell them that he has decided to quarantine (blockade) Cuba ("John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum").
Subject:
The Soviet Union was planting nuclear missiles in Cuba, which could of led to a possible nuclear war (" John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum").
Tone:
informative, worried
Soviet Union Insecurity
The Fear of Losing Cuba in an Invasion
Khrushchev had always known that the U.S. had more missiles ("Causes of the Crisis").
He knew that the Soviet missiles were only powerful enough to be launched against Europe ("Causes of the Crisis").
The U.S. missile were capable of striking all of the Soviet Union, which made them feel unsafe ("Causes of the Crisis").


Fidel Castro was unaware of the U.S. attempts to overthrow him ("Causes of the Crisis").
Castro failed at the Bay of Pig invasion ("Causes of the Crisis").
The U.S. military Armed Forces had organized a mock invasion on the Caribbean island to overthrow Ortsac ("Causes of the Crisis").
Castro was convinced that the U.S. was serious about invading Cuba ("Causes of the Crisis").
The Cuban Missile Crisis was a conflict during the Cold War, between the Soviet Union and the United States ("Cuban Missile Crisis").
Soviet leader, Nikita Khrushchev, and Cuban leader, Fidel Castro, had joined alliance together, against the U.S ("An Overview of the Crisis").
The whole crisis lasted fourteen days (October 15, 1962-October 28, 1962) ("John F. Kennedy and The Cuban Missile Crisis").
The missiles where installed, ONLY 90 miles south of Florida." ("John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum").
John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy campaigned for president in 1960 ("Campaign of 1960").
He was elected the 35th President of the United States on January 20, 1961 (Life of John F. Kennedy").
The Cuban Missile Crisis occurred in his second year of presidency ("Campaign of 1960").
President Kennedy wanted to make the best decisions he could for his country ("Life of John F. Kennedy").
He had created the Peace Corps. which allows Americans to volunteer anywhere that help was needed ("Life of John F. Kennedy").
He wanted to lead the way for exploring space, but the Soviet Union was already ahead in their space program ("Life of John F. Kennedy").
One of the biggest problems Kennedy faced was racial discrimination. He proposes the Civil Rights bill to the Congress, then went on television to ask Americans to end racism ("Life of John F. Kennedy").
What Kennedy Did
During the Crisis:
Once Kennedy had been informed after an American U-2 spy plane secretly photographed nuclear missile sites in Cuba by the Soviet Union, he immediately organized the EX-COMM ("An Overview of the Crisis").
Kennedy's ideas were to bomb attack the missile sites or have a full-scale invasion on Cuba, before initially deciding to quarantine (blockade) Cuba ("Cuban Missile Crisis").
On October 22, John F. Kennedy decided to announce his discovery of the nuclear missile installations to the Americans and his decision to quarantine (blockade) Cuba ("An Overview of the Crisis").
Kennedy and Khrushchev kept communicating through letters until tensions began to settle down on October 28, when both sides came to an agreement. Khrushchev would dismantle the nuclear missiles and return them to Moscow, as long as the U.S. wouldn't invade Cuba ("John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum").
Conclusion
Fig. 1. 14 Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis
Fig. 2. President Kennedy Delivering the Address on TV
Fig. 3. CIA Reference Photograph of Soviet Medium-range Ballistic Missile
Fig. 4. Cuban Missile Crisis
Fig. 5. The Treat of Cuban Missiles
Fig. 6. Soviet Missile Installation in Cuba
Fig. 7. 800 Women Strikers for Peace (Phil Stanziola)
The Cuban Missile Crisis was the closest the world came to a nuclear war. The fate of millions of people now was in the hands of John F. Kennedy and Soviet leader, Nikita Khrushchev (John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum"). John F. Kennedy gave an informative speech to the Americans. In order for John F. Kennedy to make his speech effective, he used rhetorical appeals, ethos, pathos, and logos, and he used rhetorical devices.
fig. 8 Maximum Range of Cuban Missiles
fig. 9 President Kennedy Meets With Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko in the Oval Office
Because of the effects of John F. Kennedy's speech, he was able to save the world from a nuclear war. Through all the letters passed back and forth between Kennedy and Khrushchev, the final one was the one that resolved the crisis. It was an agreement, which said, Khrushchev would dismantle his nuclear missiles and return them to Moscow, if Kennedy didn't invade Cuba ("The Ends of a Rope"). If it wasn't for John F. Kennedy's use of rhetorical appeals and devices, to make his speech more effective, then there could have been an end to most of the population of the U.S.
-Madelyn Gibson
Used in the Cuban Missile speech By:John F. Kennedy
Parallelism
Parallelism - Phrases with similar structure ("Rhetorical devices in writing.")

Parallelism In the Cuban Missile Crisis
"... In the southeastern part of the United States, in Central America, or in the Caribbean area." (Kennedy par.3)
Parallelism in The Cuban Missile Crisis Speech
"Nuclear weapons are so destructive
and ballistic missiles are so swift..."
(Kennedy par. 8)

Diction
The choice of words used by an author, also the style, mood, attitude and dialect of the writing. ("Diction")
"The offensive missiles sites is now in preparation on that imprisoned island. The purpose of these bases can be none other than to provide a nuclear capability against the Western Hemisphere."
(Kennedy par. 1)
Diction in the Cuban Missile Crisis.
"Many months of sacrifice and self-discipline lie ahead in in which both our patience and our will be tested, months in which many threats and denunciations will keep us aware of our dangers. But the greatest danger of all would be to do nothing." (Kennedy par. 27)
Diction in The Cuban Missile Crisis speech
Apostrophe
Apostrophe examples used in The Cuban Missile
"Finally, I would want to say a few words to the captive people of Cuba..." (Kennedy par. 27)
Repetition
"We have in the past made strenuous efforts... We have proposed the elimination of all arms and military bases... We have no wish to war with the Soviet Union..." ("Kennedy par. 21")
-Elizabeth Foley
An interruption of a speech to address a specific person or group.('' A handbook of Rhetorical Devices.")
Epimone- The repetition of a phrase to stress a point. ("Types of Repetition.")
Anaphora- The repetition of a word or phrase in successive phrases. ("Rhetorical Devices in Writing")
Epimone in the Cuban Missile Crisis.
"That statement was false... That statement was also false..." (Kennedy par. 7)
Anaphora in The Cuban Missile Crisis Speech
Epithet
Using phrases with adjectives to describe. ("Rhetorical Devices in Writing")
"Our policy has been one of patience and restraint, as benefits a peaceful and powerful nation which leads a worldwide alliance." (Kennedy par. 13)
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