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Motor Program and Open-Closed Loop Control Systems

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Patrick Tepea

on 23 January 2013

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Transcript of Motor Program and Open-Closed Loop Control Systems

activity Shumway-Cook, A., & Woollacott, M. H. (2007). Motor control: Translating research into clinical practice (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Adams, J. A. (1971). A closed-loop theory of motor learning. Journal of Motor Behavior, 3(2), 111-150.
Adams, J. A. (1987). Historical review and appraisal of research on the learning, retention, and transfer of human motor skills. Psychological Bulletin, 101(1), 41-74. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.101.1.41
Carnell, D., & Ireland, J. (2002). AS PE for OCR. Retrieved January 20, 2013, from http://books.google.com/books?id=tSEcRkPO_C0C&executive+motor+programexecutivemotorprogram&f=false
Schmidt, R. A., & Et al. (1979). Motor-output variability: A theory for the accuracy of rapid motor acts. Psychological Review, 86(5), 415-451. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.86.5.415
Schmidt, R. A., & Wrisberg, C. A. (2008). Motor learning and performance: A situation-based learning approach (4th ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Schmidt, R. A. (1982). Motor control and learning: A behavioral emphasis. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. References: Involves slower movements; Simple movements (such as drawing a straight line) or complex movements (catching a ball).
Comprised of 2 key neural components: A memory trace and a perceptual trace. (Adams, 1971)
Has the option to correct movement while movement is happening through a feedback system.
Once movement or skilled is learned it’s stored and retrieved in the long term memory; Movements will always be remembered. (ex. Riding a bike) Closed Loop System A cognitive theory of skill acquisition which emphasizes the role played by feedback in the modification of a performer’s movement DURING the course of a performer’s movement. Closed Loop system Advantages:
Effective for very rapid movement
Little attention demanding for action
Stability is not a major problem
Disadvantages:
Not effective when the environmental conditions are constantly changed
Not effective when a movement require high response accuracy
Due to the absence of feedback mechanism, they are unable to remove the disturbances occurring from external source Open-loop control system
Feedback
(No Time)


Movements cannot be changed during the performance Open-Loop Control system Automatic Movement
Actions that are quick and forceful
Control without thoughts
Carried out without feedback What is an Open-loop control System? The Process Motor programs are made up of subroutines, they are the building blocks of a “motor program”
Programs are ingrained movements in the brain which become automatic movements when action is practiced enough. (Schmidt and Wrisberg)
It is not concerned with movement initiation but rather the sequence of the movements. (ex. Swinging a bat and hitting the ball, or moving the arm) What is Motor Program? Traces of Motor Program can be linked all the way back to the 1890’s.
Robert S. Woodworth – Most lasting contribution has been the two –component model of movement aiming. (Initial Adjustment vs. Current Control)
He found that the Initial Adjustment (like feedback) constitutes the most evident part of the Current Control (associated movements of feedback).
Motor Program wasn’t described until the late 60’s when Steven Keele first wrote about the motor program in his motor control literature review.
Since Keele motor program has been progressively growing and followers such as schmidt have taken there own view of a motor program. Earliest form of Motor Program An abstract representation of movement that centrally organizes and controls the many degrees of freedom involved in performing an action (Schmidt and Lee, 2005) What is Motor Program? By: Patrick Tepea
and
Glen Moa Motor Program and
Open-Closed Loop Control Systems Allows us to correct movement as movement is occurring.
Able to learn more skillful movements. (ex. Gymnast on a balance beam)
Sensory feedback is used to modify movements.
Better used when wanting to improve a skill or movement Limitations/Disadvantages Benefits Closed Loop System Motor Program has two critical stages to it: The executive stage and the effectors stage
When the “program” is triggered there is virtually no modification of the response from events that occur in the environment.
Motor Program organizes it’s task into 3 easy steps: 1) Find muscles that are going to be contracting. 2) Order of contraction, the sequence of which muscles contract first and last. 3) Phasing, the set of contractions within a sequence. What is Motor Program? Not enough storage room to hold all perceptual traces.
Variability of movement to improve motor performance of a task.
Movement is slow and takes repeated attempts to acquire the skill or movement for the specific task.
Requires feedback
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