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Introduction to International History, Part I

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Matthew Funaiole

on 8 March 2016

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Transcript of Introduction to International History, Part I

Intro to International History, Part I
Dr. Matthew P. Funaiole
Colonialism
:
The establishment of colonial holdings through unequal relationships between colonial power and colony.
Economic
focus. Resettlement of nationals. Varied means of control.
Imperialism vs Colonialism
Industrialization
enabled imperialism. Industrial revolution influenced all aspects of society (centralization of power).

These state focused on:
(1)
the growth of the state’s military apparatus;
(2)
an emphasis on military alliances;
(3)
rapid economic development; and
(4)
the establishment of overseas spheres of influence.
Characteristics of Imperial States
Africa
Expansion Across the Globe
Much of Africa is divided among the Imperial powers. Britain and France with huge holdings.
Asia

Colonization of
India
. Exploitation of
China
through Unequal Treaties and Opium Wars.
Japan
modernizes.
Central/South America
European expansion in the Americas is forestalled by the U.S. Declaration of
Monroe Doctrine
(1823).
Relative peace in Europe, but in the past geopolitical and imperial tensions led to
Seven Years War
(1754-63) and
Napoleonic Wars
(1803–15)
Europe at Peace...
Source of tension
Collapsing territorial empires
28th June:
Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.
Austria-Hungry
declares war on
Serbia
.
The War Begins (1914)
Main Actors
Treaty of Versailles (1919)
Leader:
President Woodrow Wilson
America at Versailles
Major Problems with Versailles

Next week we will talk about why the League of Nations failed, the causes of the
Second World War
, the
United Nations
, the
Cold War
.
Preview of Next Week
The alliance system of Europe defined the nature of the conflict.
Armistice (end of hostilities) was signed on 11 November 1918.
Seeks to reinforce the post-war
status quo
. Proposes a system of international relations based on principles of international law as opposed to secret alliances. (
League of Nations
)
The harsh treatment of Germany had a destabilizing effect. Collapse of domestic institutions and economy. Germany was too weak to protect itself.
Introduction to International History, Part I
Overview of the Day
Mid-nineteenth century through the 1920s
Discussion of Imperialist World Order
Imperialism
:
Aggressive expansion. Indigenous populations subjugated for purposes of expanding state power/
prestige
. Motivated by notions of cultural superiority. Technological inequality.
Imperialism in Context
European powers dominate the global pattern of international relations.
Empires of
Britain
,
France
,
Belgium
,
the Netherlands
.
Geopolitical rivalry between great powers as search for colonies continues.
Multipolar.
Imperial late-comers:
Germany
,
Austria-Hungry
,
Italy
, and
Russia
.
Rising New Powers
Hapsburg Dynasty, Ottoman Empire, Tsarist Russia, Qing Dynasty
Growing nationalism
Network of Alliances
Secret Diplomacy
Arms Race
29th June:

Russia
orders general mobilization.
1st August:

Germany
declares war on
Russia
.
3rd August:

Germany
declares war on
France
.
4th August:

Britain
enters the war.
6th August:

Austria-Hungry
declares war on
Russia
.
Central Powers
Germany, Austria-Hungry, (Italy). Later joined by the Ottoman Empire
Triple Entente/Allied Forces
Britain, France, Russia. Later joined by Japan and U.S.
The treaty ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. Wasn't signed until 28 June 1919.
Negotiations continued throughout the
Paris Peace Conference
(Jan 1919 - Jan 1920).
Follow up on
Fourteen Points
(Jan 8th 1918). Laid out policies of free-trade, open agreements, democracy, and self-determination.
People should determine their own system of government (
self-determination
).
General limitation on armaments of all nations.
Leader:
David Lloyd George

Britain at Versailles
Saw Germany as buttress against communism in Europe.
Focused primarily on maintaining the British Empire. Favored the dividing of Germany's overseas colonies amongst the Allied powers.
Publicly aggressive towards Germany, but did not want excessively harsh punishment of Germany. Believed the spread of communism a greater threat than Germany.
Leader:
Georges Clemenceau


France at Versailles
Driven to extract retribution from Germany. Punishment in the form of reparations and disarmament.
Fervently wanted to destroy the German state so that it could never again wage war. Wished for Germany to be divided into a number of smaller, weaker states.
Desired a large, strong Poland to keep Germany in check.
Leader:
Ulrich Graf von Brockdorff-Rantzau


Germany at Versailles
Was forced to accept blame for the war (the War Guilt Clause).
Was not allowed to negotiate and forced to sign a dictated peace (
diktat
).
Its colonial holdings were stripped away. Parts of Germany proper were given away. In total, Germany lost 13% of her land and almost 7 million people.
Nature of Warfare
Technology during the war reflected the advances of industrialization and applied the methods of mass production towards weapon development.
Machine Guns
Highly defensible positions
Wide use of grenades
Trench warfare
Advances in artillery and armored vehicles
Total war/War of Attrition (resources > lives)
Forced to disarm and pay massive reparations. The amount demanded is equivalent today to US $442 billion or UK £284 billion.
Article 231 of Treaty
ART. 231: The Allied and Associated Governments confirm and
Germany accepts the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damages
to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies.
Embracing the principle of
Self-Determination
led to the creation of numerous weak states in Europe, further destabilizing the continent.
Britain felt as if had wronged Germany. Lead to a policy of
appeasement
during the 1930s.
Contributed to the rise of
Hitler
.
Emergence of League of Nations, I
Wilson's 14th Point:
“A general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of
political independence
and
territorial integrity
to great and small states alike.”
Monarchical empires -> the
self-determination
of peoples into independent states free from outside interference.
Secret diplomacy -> open discussion and public resolution of disputes.
Military alliance blocs -> a system of
collective security
guarantees
Arms race -> agreed disarmament
Emergence of League of Nations, II
Formally established on January 10th, 1920 as an institutionalized form of
collective security
.
Disarmament/reinforce the Treaty of Versailles
Collective security
is a security arrangement in which all members would agree in advance to unite against any act of aggression.
Other aims of the League
Prevent future wars
Improve people's jobs and lives (social reform)
An example of
idealism
in international relations.
Idealism in foreign policy holds that a state should make its internal political philosophy the goal of its foreign policy.
Dynamics of the First World War (WWI)
Overview of the League of Nations
Imperial Disputes
German Unification, Japanese Modernization
Other Consequences of the War
Massive devastation of human lives. Over 37 million causalities. 16 million deaths (10m military deaths; 6m civilian deaths). 20 million wounded.
Ushered in the end of the Imperialist System. Emergence of the
League of Nations
.
Ended the unparallelled dominance of European states within the international system. Power shift with the rise of U.S.
Full transcript