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Transcript of Imperialism
Rise of Imperialism
IMPERIALISM: a policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force.
Europe in Africa
Great Britain in India
EQ 12: What were the impacts of European Colonization of Latin America?
Purpose for viewing: How do these films serve as examples of Imperialism?
Desire for expansion
Desire for Economic Growth
EQ 1: How did the industrialization of European Countries affect the relationships with their colonies around the world?
1.) Industrial Revolution
2.) Population Growth
3.) Need for Raw Material
4.) Need for New Markets
1.) Create an Empire to expand
influence (land = power)
2.) Grow in Power & Dominance
1.) Spread Ideas & Knowledge of West
2.) The “White Man’s Burden”
Help or Improve primitive people
Christians Missionaries aide
1400's~Europe establishes trading posts
1600~Dutch settlement in Cape Town - (African Slave Trade)
By 1800's, many European nations ban Slave Trade
Why did Europe become so involved in Africa?
The spark of imperialistic activity:
In the 1870s, the Belgian King Leopold established trade Congo (interior of Africa).
Scramble For Africa
The Berlin Conference
European division of Africa
No Africans in attendance
Use visuals & words as symbols
What is the symbolism in this political cartoon?
Cecil Rhodes was instrumental in assuring British dominance of southern Africa. He founded the De Beers Mining Company, eventually controlling 90% of the world’s diamond production. After becoming prime minister of the Cape Colony (now South Africa) in 1890, he used his influence to strengthen British control over the region.
His master plan was to establish a Cape to Cairo railroad line that would link British colonial interests in Africa between Egypt and the Cape Colony in southern Africa. The Boers, however, provided heavy and eventually armed resistance to this proposal. After authorizing an aggressive invasion of the Boer Republic of Transvaal which ended poorly, Rhodes was removed from office. However, the seeds of the Boer War had been sown.
EQ2: How did European beliefs and actions at the Berlin Conference affect African Societies?
Division of Tribes: The Maasai
Pastoralist (raise livestock)
Stood against slavery and lived alongside most wild animals
Outsiders looking for people to enslave avoided the Maasai
the Maasai split between Kenya (62%) and Tanzania (38%)
Division of Tribes:
Grouping of the Hutu, Tutsi, & Twa
To maintain control, Belgian colonists divided the unified population into 3 groups
Tutsi were put in control because they were more 'white' looking
Hutu (majority of population) discriminated against
education, jobs, etc.
Uniting tribes against a common enemy
The British were the most successful imperialistic power in Africa. The imperialist policies of British created wars with the Africans.
For example, Boers hated the British repressive policies and clashed with them. Zulus also clashed with British.
Shift from subsistence farming to....
farming in which the farmers focus on growing enough food to feed themselves and their families
a crop produced for its commercial value rather than for use by the farmer
Creation of plantations and mines
Exploitation of raw materials and resources
Paradox of Plenty- http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2008/12/14/world/africa/20081215-africa-resources-graphic.html
European control of the economy
Shift from slave trade to exploitation
Efforts to industrialize
Colonial governments replaced traditional structures
1. Centralized kingdoms and empires
2. City States
1. Colonies (Direct Rule)
French, German, Portuguese
European rule imposed
No attempt to preserve African institutions
2. Protectorates (Indirect Rule)
Governor appointed by British gov’t
Local leaders advised by British
Supposed to preserve African institutions
3. Spheres of Influence
Local rulers maintain control of internal affairs
Europeans control port towns
4. Company Rule
European country grants economic and political control to trading company
India (revoked later)
Belgium Congo (terrible abuses)
African leaders lost power; weakened African unity
Africans did not passively accept European claims to rule over them. As European troops advanced on African territory, they met stiff resistance.
Even without modern weapons, other Africans still fiercely resisted European powers.
Zulu people resisted colonization more than 50 years
Zulu leader Shaka built strong kingdom by subduing several neighboring peoples
1879, British invaded Zulu territory, annexed kingdom as colony
Only nation to retain independence by matching European firepower
1889, emperor Menelik II modernized nation, army
1895, Italian forces invaded over treaty dispute
Menelik’s forces defeated Italians
The Boer Wars
British met opposition to land claims in southern Africa
Dutch settlers, Boers, had lived in region since 1600s
No Political Rights
Gold discovered late 1800s
Boers refused to grant political rights to foreigners, including British
Heightened Tensions, War
Britain tried to make Boer territory part of British empire
1899, war broke out
Boer forces outnumbered
Union of South Africa
British committed numerous atrocities, defeated Boers
1902, Boer territory became self-governing Union of South Africa under British control
Christianity was introduced
To the missionaries, conquered peoples were “sinners to be saved.”
Some set up hospitals and schools
Nature of the missionary reinforced the goals of the new imperialism
provided essential information needed for conquest
critical communication links in remote areas
mission stations were key trading points for European goods & ideas.
justifying conquest of other peoples with the purpose of converting them to Christianity
Positive effects of Imperialism
European efforts to improve colonies resulted in improved sanitation and education
Hospitals, schools, and factories were built creating more jobs for the people of Africa
The average life expectancy increased.
Literacy rates rose.
Economic expansion occurred.
African products became available to the international market, allowing for colonies to become prosperous.
European control brought about some political stability and order for many African colonies.
Africans lost control of their land and independence
Many of the Africans died of new diseases
Many people were killed by resisting the Europeans
The demand of cash crops caused a shortage of food which led to famines
Cultures and customs were broken down when African leaders were replaced
Homes and property were transferred to the authority of Europeans
Men were forced to leave their villages to support themselves and their family because their were no opportunities for high paying jobs because they were filled by the Europeans.
African culture was replaced by the European culture through the educational system causing traditions to become lax.
There was a division of African culture. Rivals were united while kinship and family members were split because of the artificial boundaries instated by the Europeans. This caused a great amount of tension within regions.
Negative effects of Imperialism
Effects on the Western World
Social Darwinism: the idea that those who were fittest for survival and success were superior to others
Because of Social Darwinism, Europeans felt they had the right and duty to bring progress to other nations
Racism, or the belief that one race was superior to another
Because they were more technologically advanced, many Europeans and Americans felt they had the right to dominate the peoples of Asia, Africa
Pride in one’s country was based upon industrial production, military strength, and size of empire
British East India Company
Purpose for viewing: How did a private company take control of India?
The British East India Company set up trading posts at Bombay, Madras, and Calcutta.
At first, India's ruling Mughal Dynasty kept European traders under control. By 1707, however, the Mughal Empire was collapsing.
Dozens of small states, each headed by a ruler or maharajah, broke away from Mughal control.
During the 1700’s and 1800’s the East India Company slowly took control of India
As the Mughal Empire grew weak, the East India Company grew in economic and political strength and began to build its own military force
The military force mainly consisted of
, Indian soldiers, led by British commanders
Clive had led an army from Madras and in 1758 defeated Sirajudaula at the "Battle of Plassey" and became the governor of Bengal under the banner of the East India Company. From there he was able to launch successful military campaigns against the French and stop the expansion of the Dutch.
Robert Clive was a British soldier who established the military and political supremacy of the East India Company in Southern India and Bengal. He is credited with securing India, and the wealth that followed, for the British crown.
Early British imperialism in India was carried out by the British East India Trading Company. It soon became embroiled in Indian politics.
East India Company activity limited to coastal trading cities while Mughal Empire strong
Mid-1700s, when empire broke apart into small states, East India Company leaders saw chance to take over Indian lands
The British Take Control
Keep India in Chaos
Manipulated rulers of states, suggested each needed British support to keep throne
Played rulers against each other, kept India in chaos
Company’s army took over much of India, claiming it had to restore order
The Sepoy Rebellion
The British wanted many of the raw materials India produced - cotton, indigo, jute (burlap), spices, sugar, and tea
These material were shipped to Britain for use in British factories – finished products were then shipped around the world to British colonies
Ninety-six percent of the company's of army of 300,000 men in India were native to India.
British believed they were superior and looked down upon their dark-skinned compatriots.
In the military, Sepoys could not be promoted to high ranks and the pay was miserable.
British did not respect Indian cultural or religious traditions and beliefs.
The controversy over the use of the Enfield rifle
Changes in India
East India Company made changes to Indian society
Introduced new education system, English language
Introduced British laws banning certain customs, like sati
Practice of Hindu widows throwing selves on husbands’ funeral fires
British also invited Christian missionaries to spread beliefs
Some began to believe British trying to destroy their society
Thought British wanted to eliminate Indian customs, Hinduism completely
Relations between Indians, British increasingly strained
1857, Introduction of new type British rifle set off rebellion
To load rifle, soldier had to bite off end of ammunition cartridge greased with pork, beef fat; offended Muslim &Hindu sepoys (Muslims did not eat pork; Hindus did not eat beef)
Protest & Punishment
Sepoys in Meerut refused to use cartridges; thought it plot to make them abandon Hinduism, Islam
Sepoys punished for protesting
In response, northern Indian sepoys rose up against British
Eventually gained control of Delhi
Violence & Atrocities
Violence of rebellion ferocious
Both sides committed atrocities
Sepoys killed British officers, as well as wives, children
Captured mutineers strapped to cannons and shot; villages burned
Fighting continued two years
EQ 6: How did the Sepoy Rebellion affect Great Britain's relationship with India?
India became a British colony--controlled directly by the Crown of England
In 1877 Queen Victoria took the title Empress of India
The part of India that was under direct British rule was called the Raj. The term Raj referred to British rule over India from 1757 until 1914.
British moved away from some social regulations that angered many Indians
Distrust still continued between British, Indians
The rule of East India Company ends
Rebellion threatens British economic gains leads to military involvement
Stronger Military Presence
EQ 7: How did Great Britain's control of India change the political structure?
Era of British rule in India often called British Raj, Hindi word meaning “rule”
A British viceroy in India governed in the name of the queen, and British officials held the top positions in the civil service and army.
Some areas remained under control of local rajas.
Indians filled most other jobs (lower level government officials and workers)
Administration carried out by government agency, Indian Civil Service (ICS)
For British, The “jewel in the crown” of the British Empire, with political and financial rewards, national pride
For Indians, British rule source of frustration and humiliation
Frustration gave rise to powerful feelings of nationalism
Though ruling India, most ICS officials British
ICS employed very few Indians
Many educated Indians frustrated at having no say in own government
Many British thought they were superior
Segregated neighborhoods; exclusive clubs
Prejudiced, thought Indians incapable of governing selves
EQ 8: How did imperialism impact the economy of India?
Cash Crops & Starvation
Purpose for viewing: How did British cash crops lead to starvation in India?
EQ 9: How did Great Britain's presence in India influences the country's culture?
Cause & Effect
Directions: For each of the following slides, identify the cause & effect on your graphic organizer.
British control the textile and salt markets
Destroys Indian textile producers
Industrialization moves backwards
Increase in infrastructure
Health care & Population growth
Disrupted Traditional Culture
Increased National identity
Europe in China
EQ 10: How did Great Britain's need for resources cause the Opium Wars?
EQ 11: What were the effects of China's loss in the Opium Wars?
THE OPIUM WARS
Closed Door Policy
China goes into isolation
finishes the Great Wall
emperor's palace in the "Forbidden City"
The Great Withdrawal of 1433
no travel outside of China
no foreign goods sold in China
Economical and political reasons
do not want outside influence
By 1800, trade limited to 1 city, Canton
Europeans bought silk, tea, spices, lacquered products, and porcelain (still called china)
But the Europeans found it difficult to sell their products in return
woolen fabrics, metal products, and cotton
Most Chinese goods paid for in silver
sap from the opium poppy seed pod
British Begin Smuggling Opium into China
Grown in India
Opium banned in most of Europe
Sell to Chinese (illegally) to make up for the silver they are losing for tea
Originally used for medicinal purposes
Eventually used a recreational drug
1839-1842: The First Opium War
The Emperor issued severe punishment for smoking and trading opium
Confiscated 11,000 pounds of opium and 20,000 chests of opium burned publicly
British opened hostilities and started the opium war
The Emperor of China signed the “Treaty of Nanjing”, with the Queen of England, in August 1842.
1856-1860: The Second Opium War
Similar conflicts arose from First Opium War
British wanted to renegotiate last treaty in order to gain more power
China loses again
Treaty of Tianjin
Message of Weakness
The ease with which the British forces defeated the numerically superior Chinese armies seriously affected the Qing Dynasty's prestige.
British resume the opium trade
Opening of the profitable Chinese market
European countries & Japan gain rights to control areas and trade under their laws
Exploitation of Chinese resources
Creation of the Spheres of Influence
Local rulers maintain control of internal affairs
Europeans control port towns
VERY LITTLE change occurred
Following Latin American Revolutions, Spain and Portugal leave, but no big cultural changes in South American culture
Gap between rich and poor
Made trade agreements with Great Britain and USA
Latin America remained agrarian (agricultural)
Great Britain and USA depended on them for raw materials and would lose a lot if Latin America industrialized
Support of governments/regimes
Increased American Involvement
The Spanish-American War
EQ 13: How were the impacts of imperialism in Africa, India, China, and Latin America similar and different?