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Alien + Sedition Acts
Transcript of Alien + Sedition Acts
The Naturalization Act of 1798
The Alien Act
The Alien Enemies Act
And The Sedition Act The alleged purpose of the Alien and Sedition Acts was to protect the US from threats from foreign enemies What are these Acts? The Naturalization Act of 1798 The Naturalization Act of 1798 amended the previous Naturalization Act so that before becoming citizens aliens were required to live in the US for 14 years instead of 5. The Alien Act During peace time, The Alien Act, also known as the Alien Friends Act of 1798, allowed the President to deport Aliens that he decided were dangerous to US safety and security The Alien Enemies Act The Alien Enemies Act during war time permitted the ... arrest imprisonment and deportation of aliens from enemy countries The Sedition Act The Sedition Act prohibited anyone to "write, print, utter, or publish... any false, scandalous, and malicious writing" against the government or they will be subject to fines or imprisonment. At the time, there were fears of an impending war with France The Federalists-led Congress passed the Alien and Sedition Acts giving President John Adams the authority to restrict critism of the government and to have aliens in the US deported or imprisoned Interestingly, The Naturalization Act of 1798 only extended citizenship to free white people. There by excluding foreign born people of color from becoming citizens President Adams never actually used his authority to deport or imprison aliens; however, 25 men, mostly editors of newspapers were arrested and their newspapers were as a result shut down The Alien and Sedition Acts expired or were repealed by 1802 Of the Acts, only The Alien Enemies Act remains in effect, as modified The Alien And Sedition Acts were never reviewed by the US Supreme Court for their constitutionality because at the time the Court did not have judicial review This is not the first time that the government has used laws to restrict the rights of aliens now referred to as immigrants. The Patriot Act The official title of The USA Patriot Act is "Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism" Like the Alien Enemies Act, The Patriot Act also permits the arrest and imprisonment of immigrants
As it had done numerous times before, the U.S., acting out of fear of war, used the Alien Enemies Act to restrict the civil liberties of immigrants and citzens. Similarly, The Patriot Act was passed in response to threats of attack from foreign enemies after the 9/11 terrorist attacks on the U.S. After the 1941 bombing of Pearl Harbor by Japan, President Franklin Roosevelt authorized the military to establish military zones or "exclusion zones" from which the military could exclude "any and all persons" More than 110,000 Japanese were relocated to ten camps of which over two-thirds were American citizens. As it did almost 200 years earlier to those imprisoned or fined under the Alien and Sedition Acts, the U.S. in 1988, apologized to those that were relocated and paid 1.6 million dollars in reparations to Japanese Americans. Title I - authorizes the money to accomplish the goals of The Patriot Act. The president may also secretly take the property of any foreign person who is believed to have aided in a war or attack on the United States. Title II - authorizes roving wiretaps which permits law enforcement to listen to a person's communication regardless of where the person goes
Allows law enforcement to order communications providers such as internet services to provide details about a customer's use of the service
Permits law enforcement to delay notification of search warrants thereby allowing a person's property to be searched while the person isn't present Title III - allows law enforcement agencies to gather information from banks and allows longer prison terms for money laundering. Title IV - Foreigners associated with terrorist organizations are banned from entering the United States and the monitoring of foreign students is expanded Title V - allows law enforcement to demand information and paperwork related to U.S. citizens without judicial review or probable cause. Title VI - provides financial compensation to victims of terrorism and their families Title VII - allows increased sharing of information between law enforcement agencies. Title VIII -expands the definition of terrorism and increases the penalties for terrorist crimes. Title IX - creates a method for sharing national intelligence information between government agencies Title X - contains a number of miscellaneous provisions President Jefferson, who defeated President Adams in the1800 presidential election, pardoned all those convicted under the Sedition Act and Congress repaid all the fines paid with interest. The Patriot Act amended and expanded numerous laws and like the Alien and Sedition Acts was divided into a series of laws or titles. The American Enemies Act has continued to be used to restrict the liberties of immigrants as well as American citizens such as in the case of the Japanese Internment Camps. Again, the U.S., fueled by fear of war, restricted the civil liberties of immigrants Fearing that Japanese immigrants and Japanese Americans could be spies or would turn against the U.S., the Japanese were excluded from most of the pacific coast. They were removed from their homes and placed in War Relocation camps based solely on their ancestry Similar to the Alien and Sedition Acts, the The Patriot Act was to automatically expire
The Patriot Act was to expire on December 31, 2005, but was extended in 2006 and again in 2011 with modifications Unlike in the case of the Alien and Sedition Acts, the provisions of The Patriot Act have been challenged and the U.S. Supreme Court has found some of the provisions of the Act unconstitutional Some Japanese Americans challenged this use of the Alien Enemies Act to the U.S. Supreme Court which now had judicial view, but the Court did not find the provisions unconstitutional Special Thanks to:
My Dad (Robert Boyd)
And my expert Nikki Fuller (My Mom) Comparison from 1790 to 2000