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Salzburgers, Highland Scots, and Malcontents of Trustee Period Georiga
Transcript of Salzburgers, Highland Scots, and Malcontents of Trustee Period Georiga
There was a huge number of (mostly English) colonists who were upset with the rules imposed on them. These were not the original settlers who were to arrive with monetary assistance. Malcontents could pay their own way. Malcontents looked to South Carolina and their extreme success in growing crops. South Carolina allowed slavery, liquor, and the sale of land. Females could inherit land from their husbands or fathers. Much of their success was due to slavery, and Georgians were working hard to even feed themselves. Georgians wanted slaves, to produce more crops, which would eventually require more land. Females were pushing to have the right to inherit land and people were dying for a sip of rum. Malcontents objected to the regulations and wanted them gone.
Salzburgers were a group of hardworking German Protestants. They were from the town of Salzburg, thus their name. They were excited to hear about the opening of Georgia: a place that would allow them to practice Protestantism in peace. In Germany, they were being prosecuted by the Catholics.
The Salzburgers arrived in 1734. Salzburgers became some of the most hard-working people in colonial Georgia. Their town was created a ways from Savannah and was named Ebenezer. However, due to bad conditions on the land, they moved within a year. Salzburgers faced intense illness, poor land, and terrible harvests. They built a new town named New Ebenezer, and built their own churches and used their own language. There, their land was better and the harvests improved. Salzburgers raised cattle and grew crops like the mulberry trees. successfully. English authorities referred to them as the ideal colonist: one that worked for themselves and for the family in hopes of a better tomorrow. They also opposed slavery and alcohol, which was a plus.
The Highland Scots were from Scotland, and were famed for their bravery in war. They were invited to the new colony in hopes that they could train the weak militia and defend the colony from the Spanish threat from La Florida.
In England, King George II had issued a charter to Oglethorpe and his twenty supporters for the creation of the new colony in 1732. The Charter of 1732 would be valid for 21 years. The twenty one of the supporters (Oglethorpe included) would be called the Trustees. Out of the twenty one Trustees, only Oglethorpe would ever go to the colony. They established five rules that every colonist had to follow to even be considered to be taken to the colony.
1. Every colony must participate in the militia to defend the English colonies.
2. Land cannot be sold for profit, and only males could inherit land.
3. Proceeds and crops must be shipped back to England.
4. Portions of land reserved for growing mulberry trees, which are fed on by silkworms, in turn producing silk.
5. Colonists must obey all Trustee regulations and laws.
They also imposed some regulations. Regulations did not have to passed by the king, so Trustees could create their own.
1. No Catholics (scared the Catholics would join the Spanish)
2. No blacks (feared slavery would begin)
3. No lawyers (believed settlers should work out their own problems)
4. No liquor dealers (believed strong alcohols would effect work ethic and production)
The huge Spanish settlement in the New World, La Florida, unnerved the royal government and the people of the colonies. The newly established St. Augustine was a massive military fort, and the colonists were totally outnumbered by the forces. People feared that the goods from the English colonies would be destroyed and taken by the Spanish. La Florida was so close to South Carolina and its precious goods that the idea of a buffer colony began- one that would be named Georgia. The buffer colony would slow the Spanish forces or, hopefully, stop it completely.
The Highland Scots arrived in 1736, and created their own small city named Darien. They raised cattle and timber very well, and were opposed to slavery. The Highland Scots were extremely invaluable to the colonists in 1742. In the Battle of the Bloody Marsh (1742), the most important battle between the colonists and the Spanish, they launched a suprise ambush on St. Simon's Island on the Spanish forces that were in the area. After this battle, the Spanish would no longer lay claim to Georgia and would stay within their already established border of La Florida.
This battle also helped Oglethorpe receive the military status of general, effectively dimming the failure at St. Augustine (1740), which he still would take responsibility for later.
end of the trustee period
The Malcontents just kept getting more and more support. Oglethorpe had left the colony after the Battle of Bloody Marsh, to report as a general and to his failure at St. Augustine, but he never returned to the colony as he planned. The other Trustees could not keep control of the Malcontents in the colony, so in 1752, one year before their charter ended, they returned the colony to the king, officially ending the Trustee Period.
remember: all during this time,
malcontents were growing in support. less and less people agreed to the trustee regulations.
In 1740, Oglethorpe led a small militia to the well-protected St. Augustine. They were outnumbered and the mission was a complete failure.
Who were the Salzburgers, Malcontents, and Highland Scots? And why were they the way they were? How did they get to the colonies? Why were they wary of the Spanish?
the bloody marsh battle site. highland scots were key in this battle.