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Periodic Table

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Ana Josefina Leiva

on 19 September 2012

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Transcript of Periodic Table

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli Alkaline earth metals Beryllium Magnesium Calcium Beryllium is a metal that you can find in some minerals like beryl.
The Egyptians and Romans used it to prepared artificial emerald some centuries C.E because of they are too similar.
In 1797 Louis Nicolas Vanqueline found the beryllium by dissolving aluminum hydroxide from emerald and beryl in a addition alkali
At first, it was named "glucina" due to it is sweet taste but them it was name beryllium remembering the mineral. The element beryllium is expensive, it may be fabricated with aluminum for some applications to reduce cost. Properties
A high melting
Corrosion resistant
Light Weight
Excellent thermal conductivity
Resists attack by concentrated nitric acid
Resists oxidation when exposed by air
Good Neutron deflector
Toxic and carcinogenic Some application:
Because of its stiffness, light weight, stability over wide temperature range it is used for the aerospace industrial, military applications, instrumentation and non-sparking tools.
It is used for mirror and ceramic to support structure because of it is rigid and it has a light weight.
It is used for nuclear industrial because of it is a good neutron reflector. Magnesium is a metal and it is the one of most abundant element in the universe and in the earth.
Its name originates from Greek word for a district in Thessaly called Magnesia where there were magnetite and manganese
Today it can be extracted from the minerals dolomite and carnallite, but is most often obtained from seawater
Sir Humphry Davy in England in 1801 was first produced using electrolysis of a mixture of magnesia and mercuric oxide, and he suggested magnum as a name . Properties
It is the highest metal.
It is the tenth most abundant element in the human body
It is silvery white
Relative tough
The metal tarnishes slightly in air
Ignites upon heating in air Some applications
Because of it ignites upon heating air, it is used in pyrotechnic and incendiary devices.
It is allowed with other metals to make them lighter and more easily welded with applications in the aerospace and car industry.
It used for electronic devices due to it has low weigh, good mechanical and electrical properties.
It used for manufacturing of mobile phones, laptop and tablet computers. It is cheap because it is one of the most elements in the earth´s crust It is a softgray alkaline earth.
It is the fifth most abundant element in the Earth´s crust.
You can´t find free in nature but it can be purified into a soft silvery-white alkaline earth metal
It is essential for animals and plan nutrition
Its name comes from Latin word "calcis" meaning lime.
The Ancient Romans combine it with limes, volcano ash and rock, and used that mixture for construction of fabulous buildings such as Pantheon and Colosseum.
In 1808 Sir Humphry Davy isolated it by the electrolysis of a mixture of lime and mercuric oxide. Properties
It is difficult to ignite
Reacts with water generating much heat
Has a hight electrical resistivity because of it´s low density. Some applications
As a reducing agent in the extraction of other metals
It is used in making of caments due to its neacction with water
It is used in production aluminum, beryllium, steal, copper, and magnesium alloys
It is used in making of cheese due to its ions contribute to coagulate milk.
It is no too expensive because you can obtained so easily Strontium It is an alkaline earth metal.
It occurs naturally in the minerals celestine and strontianite.
Its name comes from Strontian, a village in Scotland near with the mineral was first discovered
H. Crawford discovered it in Scotland in 1790 and Davy isolated it by electrolysis in 1808 Properties
It is softer and decomposes more vigorously in water than calcium.
Ignites spontaneously in air.
Oxidizes rapidly Some applications
It is used in the production of sugar contributing to crystallization process due to its oxidation properties.
It is used in pyrotechnic and incendiary devices because of it ignites with contact with air.
It is used combined with other metals to make the alloys softer.
It is used in glass for color television cathode ray tubes to prevent x-ray emission.
In some medical applications like in the treatment of osteoporosis to give ductility to bones
It is not too expensive. Barium It is a soft silvery metallic alkaline earth metal
It is not found in nature as a free element. It is in some minerals barite and witherite
Its name comes from Greek and it means "heavy"
It was first isolated by electrolysis in 1808, by Sir Humphry Davy in England. Properties
It oxidizes readily and should be stored under petroleum.
It decomposes in water or alcohol, and it is soluble in both of them.
It phosphorescent following exposure to light
It has a low toxicity and high density Some applications
It is used in petroleum industry, in drilling fluid control improving physical properties of some polymers
In a coating for the electrodes of fluorescent lamps due to it phosphorescent.
It is used in x-ray imagining of the digestive system due to it has a high density and a low toxicity
It is no too expensive because it doesn´t has a lot of applications. Radium It is an almost pure-white alkaline earth metal.
It was discovered by Marie and Pierre Curie in 1898. They extracted it from uraninite by electrolysis
It is found in uranium ores in trace amounts.
It is not necessary for living organisms and it has adverse health effects due to its radioactivity and chemical reactivity.
Its names comes from Latin radius that means ray. Properties
Decomposes in water
It is more volatile than the barium
It emits alpha, beta and gamma rays.
Produces neutrons when mixed with beryllium
It loses about 1% of its activity over 25 years
It is a radiological hazard and requires ventilation to prevent the build up of radon gas. Some applications
It is used in self- luminous paints for watches, nuclear panels, air craft switches and instrumental dials due to it emits rays.
It is used as an additive in toothpaste. hair creams and some food due to its supposed curative powers.
It is used in medical applications as cancer treatment using its capacity to emits rays to avoid the metastasis .
In the nuclear industries due to it combined with beryllium produces neutrons, it is being researched today.
It is so expensive because it present in little percentage in uranium.
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