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History of Typography 1900s-1930s
Transcript of History of Typography 1900s-1930s
Influential Stylistic Periods
Important Type Foundries
Established in 1906 in Offenbach am Main, Germany. Its designer Rudolf Koch’s creation of Koch Antiqua and Fraktur contributed to the revival of old calligraphic types.
Was founded by David Stempel in 1869 in Frankfurt, Germany. Its Memphis typeface in 1929 received massive commercial success for its high flexibility and legibility.
Founded by Ottmar Mergenthaler in 1886. It later became one of the world’s largest typefaces providers, with more than 6000 type families. Ottmar Mergenthaler was often refered to as the second Gutenberg for the revolutionary invention of Linotype machine.
Sans Serif typefaces
Passion for new typography
Sans Serifs released include: Futura, Gill Sans, Franklin Gothic
Gill Sans which is one of the most well known typefaces for the time has humanist characteristics - Lots of variations in the line weight
Influential Type Designers
Gill Sans: goal was to provide Monotype an alternative design to many sans serifs 1928
Typographical adviser to Monotype Corporation, released Rockwell, Times New Roman, Baskerville
One of greatest book typographers of twentieth century, first and most successful type was Lutetia
One of 20th century more important designers - Optima, Palatino, Melior, ITC Zapf and many more. Considered one of the word’s most famous and successful calligrapher
Typography Referenced pgs 18-21
Significant Typeface Designs
Created by Otto Eckman
Fusion of art nouveau and blackletter styles
Copperplate Gothic (1901)
Created by Frederic W. Goudy for American Type Founders
Classified as a sans serif, gothic typeface commonly used in stationery and etched into glass
Created by J.H. Mason for The Imprint magazine
20th Century revival of Old Style face
modeled after Caslon Old Style with a larger x-height
designed specifically for machine composite
used for the Oxford English Dictionary 2nd Edition (1989)
Edward Johnston for the London Underground
humanist sans serif
characterized by letter "o" as a perfect circle, diagonal dots for punctuation
later influences Gill Sans
now referred to as Johnston, redesigned in 1979 into New Johnston
Goudy Old Style (1915)
Frederic W. Goudy's 25th typeface
American Type Founders
used for text, display, packaging and advertising
characterized by upturned ear of "g," base of "E" and "L"
Bauer Bodoni (1924)
Louis Hoell and Heinrich Jost for Bauer
first European revival of a modern face
used in book publishing and general text setting
Gill Sans (1926)
Eric Gill, apprentice of Edward Johnston
commissioned by Stanley Morison to compete with German typefaces like Futura
ultimate legible typeface for text and display
used in London and North Eastern Railway
influenced by Johnston typeface
Paul Renner for Bauer
first truly geometric sans serif
used in advertising and display
based on classical Roman proportions
Rudolf Wolf for Stempel/Linotype
first 20th century revival of slab serif
used in advertising and display
Times New Roman (1932)
Stanley Morison and Victor Lardent for Monotype/Linotype
first typeface designed as house style for a newspaper
used as a default serif font with most computer operating systems
Bell Gothic (1937)
Chauncey H. Griffith for Bell Telephone Company/Mergenthaler Linotype
first sans serif designed exclusively for saving space
used for telephone directories
begins in 19th century, popular into early 20th century
began in Belgium and France
rejected the borrowing of ideas from the past and from other cultures
good design is based on nature
backlash against typographic excess of previous
sans serifs become popular
characterized by little or no variation in stroke weights, larger x-height, no serifs
based on function, use of grids and systematic geometry
preference for sans serif, industrial or geometric typefaces
dislike of decoration
flourished in Germany in the 20s under the influence of Bauhaus
Appeared late 19th century
More foundries competing in commercial printing market
Most designed in 1930s - height of popularity
Applied for page design of books, title pages, chapter headings
Because of so many slab-serifs, these typefaces satisfied public desire for more distinct types.
Jan van Krimpen
New printing techniques, mimeograph (1890), screen printing (1907), spirit duplicator (1923), were invented to replace the traditional hot metal print. Factory-produced movable type, which gained popularity in the late 19th century, greatly increased publishing efficiency.
The invention of Benton Pantography in 1884 by American type designer Linn Boyd Benton ended the era of punchcutting type design when only extensively-trained professionals can create new typeface.
Rise of mass production, advertising and print media during the second Industrial Revolution (from the late19th century to the World War I) fostered growing demand for type design.
Sans Serif typefaces began to gradually replace slab serif to become the most popular commercial type family. Grotesk (1896), Franklin Gothic (1902), Erbar (1901, the first geometric typeface), and Futura (1927).
Headquartered in Woburn, Massachusetts. Its first typeface was released in 1989, named Modern Condensed. Another of its creation, Monotype Bembo (1929) is a revival of 15th century Roman type. It’s also the manufacturer of Monotype hot metal typesetting machine.
Created in 1892. 23 type foundries in the US joined the organization at that time. It established standard font size system and promoted type compatibility.
The Klingspor Type Foundry
D. Stempel AG Foundry
Mergenthaler Linotype Company
American Type Founders (ATF)