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Copy of Translanguaging Tools
Transcript of Copy of Translanguaging Tools
through two languages Do you translanguage? Search For My Tongue - Sujata Bhatt
"You ask me what I mean
by saying I have lost my tongue.
I ask you, what would you do
if you had two tongues in your mouth,
and lost the first one,
the mother tongue,
and could not really know the other,
the foreign tongue.
You could not use them both together
even if you thought that way..." ... Overview Translanguaging:
Seven tools Why translanguaging? It may:
promote a deeper and fuller understanding of the subject matter
help the development of the weaker language
facilitate home-school links and cooperation
help the integration of fluent speakers with early learners How does it deepen understanding? “It is possible in a monolingual teaching situation for students to answer questions or write an essay about a subject without fully understanding it. Processing for meaning may not have occurred. Whole sentences or paragraphs can be copied…without real understanding. It is less easy to do this with ‘translanguaging’. To read and discuss a topic in one language, and then to write about it in another language, means that the subject matter has to be processed and 'digested'." Where is translanguaging relevant? bilingual education: http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/sujata-bhatt-search-for-my-tongue/10294.html Further information How could translanguaging be used in assessment? Seven tools for translanguaging
During the lesson, we mix languages (L1, first language, and L2 second language) because:
1. Resource access
2. Word gaps
3. Content mastery
4. Language use
5. Community inclusion
6. Cultural perspectives
7. Bilingual development Example: a History text in your L2 Which words do you not know? Of these:
which words can you guess the meaning of?
Which words are not essential to know in order to perform your task?
Which are essential words that you need to discuss or translate?
Which essential words are difficult to translate (word gap)? Example: primary school in Wales 5. Community inclusion Introduction ‘Translanguaging' – just a fancy word for 'code-switching' and mixing languages? Does it lead to using neither language properly? Is it a slippery slope to poor classroom management?
Or is translanguaging the 21st century way forward for bilingual teaching, learning and assessment? How does the use of two or more languages enhance learning?
This presentation introduces translanguaging and proposes 7 tools for translanguaging.
Comments welcomed! Interlingual classrooms (Gallagher, E.)
(Source: Chadwick, T., 2012)
Students research a topic in L1, report on it through L2
Student using L1 at home to work through a topic with parent
In classes taught via L1 (or L2), terminology also taught in L2 (or L1)
Group work in L1 to increase student-to-student verbal interaction
Multiple L1s: supporting use of L1 as a resource in learning L2
Teacher using L1 after L2 explanation has failed
Students orally translating a term from L2 into L1
Bilingual identity texts (Cummins, J.)
Source: Mehisto, P., 2012
- “Native language project”: product in L1, metalinguistic reflection in L2 English – New York State high school (Sylvan, C. et al, 2002)
…but in which part of curriculum? Conclusion:
from problem to tool From: unplanned, naturally occurring, disapproved
To: purposeful, tapping into natural occurrence, reflected on
For: range of purposes:
- no choice
- enable learning through L2
- bilingual development Acknowledgements Baker, C., 2011, Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, Multilingual Matters
Bedore, L., Peña, E., García, E., Cortez, C., 2005, ‘Conceptual versus monolingual scoring: When does it make a difference?’ Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 36
Chadwick, T., 2012, Language Awareness in Teaching: A Toolkit for Content and Language Teachers, Cambridge University Press/Cambridge International Examinations
Coyle, D., Hood, H., Marsh, D., 2010, Content & Language Integrated Learning, Cambridge University Press
García, O., 2009, Bilingual Education in the 21st Century, Wiley-Blackwell
Lewis, G., Jones, B. & Baker, C., 2012, ‘Translanguaging: origins and development from school to street and beyond’ Educational Research & Evaluation: An International Journal on Theory and Practice
Mehisto, P., 2012, Excellence in Bilingual Education: A Guide for School Principals, Cambridge University Press/Cambridge International Examinations
Sylvan, C., & Romero, M., 2002, ‘Reversing language loss in a multilingual settings: A native language enhancement program and its impact’. In T. Osborn (ed.) The future of foreign language education in the United States, pp. 139-166. Greenwood Publishing Group
http://www.cambridgeassessment.org.uk/ca/Spotlight/Detail?tag=Translanguaging 1. Resource access 2. Word gap 3. Content mastery 4. Language use 6. Cultural perspectives L1 enabling learning through L2 Culture Focus on L1 + L2
hard (some essential words were difficult to explain or to translate) Example: a History text in your L2 From very early in 1968, other Communist leaders in Eastern Europe were alarmed by developments in Czechoslovakia. It was clear to them that the growing freedom could be highly infectious. Indeed, it was not long before demonstrating Polish students shouted, ‘We want a Polish Dubcek!’ The first sustained pressure put on the Czechoslovak leadership came at a meeting with five member states of
the Warsaw Pact in March 1968. The meeting in early August between the Czechoslovak leaders and the Soviet and East European leaders produced a compromise document. At the very time when this agreement was being reached, the Soviet leadership were sent a letter they had been asking for to justify an invasion. It was a request from the hard-line members of the Czechoslovak leadership calling for intervention. The final decision to launch an invasion was taken between 15 and 17 August. When speaking or writing in your L2, perhaps you had to mix languages (L1 and L2) because there is no word for certain concepts in your L2, or because you didn’t know the words in your L2.
Reflection: Which words could you not express in your L2?
Examples of words in my L1 which do not exist in my L2…
Examples of words in my L1 which I don't know in my L2... The lesson was taught through our L2, so we read/heard about the topic in the L2 (hard), but we used our L1 (easier) to write about/discuss the content
We previewed/reviewed the L2 lesson in our L1
We rehearsed in our L1 before presenting in L2
Reflection: How was it helpful using your L1? Source: Dr Gwyn Lewis (Bangor University), presented at Cambridge Assessment seminar, October 2012, Translanguaging: A Dynamic Bilingual Perspective on Pedagogy, Assessment and Research
Using my L2 helped me improve my L2 skills and understand the content better. There are students in the class who don’t understand our L1, so we used an international language (L2) in order to include them, or we encouraged them to share their L1 with us.
My parents don’t understand the language of schooling (L2), so I used my L1 to discuss my homework with them.
Reflection: How did using your L1/L2 help you to include someone else?
By using my (or someone else's) L1/L2, I communicated with… and learnt something new about… It was interesting to get different cultural perspectives, so we researched information in both L1 and L2.
Reflection: How did your L1 and L2 enrich your research?
We found out the following… through the L1, and we found out the following...through the L2 7 Bilingual development How could the 7 tools be used? “How consciously aware are bilinguals in using two languages for purposeful use of two languages that goes beyond the linguistics of code-switching and into improving understanding, ease of conceptualisation, and transmission of thinking?” Because we want to be bilingual in a subject, we decided to do things in two languages.
Reflection: What did you do in two languages? How do you feel about your ability in L1 and L2?
We learnt key words in both L1 and L2 – e.g…..
We compared how to say things in different languages – e.g….
We produced work on… in two languages.
How I feel about my progression in L1 & L2… Teacher: Student: uses translanguaging tools adjusts teaching reflects & feeds back continues to use tools Trawsieithu Translanguaging (Baker, C., 2011, p.288) (Baker, C., 2001, 2006, 2011) (Baker, C., 2011, p289)
supporting bilingual learners:
“Bilingual education takes on many different forms, and increasingly... includes forms where two or more languages are separated for instruction, but also forms where two or more languages are used together in complex combinations.”
(García, O., 2009, pp.290-291) Assessment of bilinguals (demonstrating knowledge)
- "It's red and blue y tiene una rava y una estrella" (Bedore et al, 2005, pp188-200)
…but acceptable to all stakeholders? formative assessment only?
- “Read the passage in English, answer in your own language”
…but how many languages pragmatic? dual-language contexts only? standardisation? Assessments for bilinguals (demonstrating bilingual ability) Why do you translanguage? The resource (e.g. website, film, article) is only available in one language (L2), so you might need to use your L1 to understand it. Reflection: How difficult was the L2 resource? easy (I understood all of it) OK (I understood most of it – and for words I didn't know I could guess the meaning, or it was not essential to know all the words to do the task) a bit hard (I needed explanation from others in my L2/L1, I needed to translate essential words into my L1) Using my L1 was helpful when... because… Using my L1 was not helpful when... because… We researched a topic in our L1 (because easier or useful resources), but we used our L2 to discuss/write about it (even though this was hard), in order to improve our productive skills in the L2.
Reflection: How did using your L1/L2 help with the task? Using my L2 was too difficult. Using my L2 helped me improve my L2 skills. (Lewis. G, Jones, B. & Baker, C., 2012, p. 12) Thanks to:
Paul Ellis,Dr Gwyn Lewis,
Dr Peeter Mehisto, Hema Mistry,
Deidre O'Hare, Stuart Shaw,
CLIL conference workshop participants, Ustron, Poland, 4-6 April 2013 Cen Williams (1994, Wales) "Both languages are used in an integrated & coherent way to organise & mediate mental processes in learning.” No choice Using my L1 was useful when... because... Could the seven tools of translanguaging be useful? Discuss! / dyskutować!
Comments welcomed - either in the Prezi comments box, or to Helen Imam at: firstname.lastname@example.org
Cambridge International Examinations programmes and qualifications can provide international recognition for the English-medium strand of a bilingual programme. Further information:
CLICK ON VIDEO CLIP IN SPACE BELOW What are examples? pages 34, 35, 104, 113 pages 72-74 "a systematic shift from one language to another for specific reasons" (Coyle, D., Hood, P., & Marsh, D., 2010, p.16)