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Stem Cells

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Anjali Vemuri

on 5 February 2014

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Transcript of Stem Cells

Embryonic Stem Cells
Adult Stem Cells
Adult stem cells are thought to be undifferentiated cells that are found in tissues or organs.

The adult stem cells get activated when they receive a signal from a damaged tissue.

Induced Pluripotent
Are adult cells that have been genetically reprogrammed to an embryonic stem cell
Have been made from adult stomach, liver, skin cells, blood cells, prostate cells and urinary tract cells
Pluripotent - multiple potential
Doesn't require eggs to create
2007- new way found to generate
(Mouse - 2006, Human - 2007)
Initially iPS cells were generated using viruses to change gene expression

Totipotent Stem Cells
What are totipotent stem cells?
-stem cells that can form all the cell types in a body, plus the extraembryonic, or placental cells
-Totipotent stem cells are one of the most important stem cells types because they have the potential to develop into any cell found in the human body.


li Vemuri

How are they made?
What instruments are used?
-For in vitro fertilization, they are placed in a nutrient based culture dish.
- a variety of transfection, cloning and viral transduction technologies to engineer embryonic stem cells for the study of gene and protein expression, differentiation methods or the effects of disease specific genes
Life Technologies offers a number of high-quality growth factors and cytokinesis for targeted differentiation of ESCs.These proteins are extensively tested to ensure high biological activity, high purity, freeze-thaw stability, and structural homogeneity.
Pluripotent Stem Cells
Pluripotent Stem Cells can differentiate into whatever type of specialized cell it wants except for placenta.
Pluripotent Stem Cells are typically Embryonic Stem Cells.
Adult Stem Cells aren't generally pluripotent because of the fact that they have already specialized and chosen which cells to become.

What are embryonic stem cells(ESCs)?

- They are stem cells derived from the inner cell mass of a human embryo when it is just a few days old, which is also called a blastocyst.
-They are also called starter cells, because they can turn into anything.

-They are pluripotent, meaning they are able to grow into all types of the 3 primary germ layers;
Ectoderm- skin and nerve tissue
Endoderm- digestive and respiratory lining
Mesoderm- muscle and bone tissue
There are 2 ways a ESC can be made:
Way#1: -The egg is fertilized with a sperm and becomes an embryo.
-The carrier of the embryo decides to donate it to a IVF clinic.
Way#2: -Donated sperm and egg cells are fertilized in a culture dish (nutrient solution filled petri-dish).

-The embryo then replicates multiple times into balls of cells or blastocysts.
-Blastocyst contain about 100 cells total, with the stem cells located inside them.
-At this stage, the stem cells are pluripotent.
To grow the stem cells, scientists remove them from the blastocyst and culture them in a Petri dish in the laboratory.
-The stem cells divide several times and scientists divide the population into other dishes.

After several months, there are millions of stem cells.
-If the cells continue to grow without differentiating, then the scientists have a stem cell line-(family of constantly dividing cells)
-Cell lines can be frozen and shared between laboratories.
What are they being used for?
Studying stem cells will help us understand how they transform into an array of specialized cells that make us what we are. A better understanding of normal cell development will allow us to understand and perhaps correct the errors that cause medical conditions.
-Another potential application of stem cells is making cells and tissues for medical therapies.
Embryonic stem cells offer the possibility of a renewable source of replacement cells and tissues to treat a myriad of diseases, conditions, and disabilities including Parkinson's disease, spinal cord injury, burns, heart disease, diabetes, arthritis,etc.

How are they made?
-The egg cell in a woman and the sperm cell from a man fuse together to form a single cell called the zygote. The zygote divides numerous times and forms cells that are the precursors to the trillions of cells that will eventually constitute the human body.
-This totipotent fertilised egg has the potential to give rise to virtually all human cells, such as nerve or heart.

What are the Special Qualities/Benefits of a Totipotent Stem Cell?
-They have the ability to become any cell type in a fully developed human.
-They have the ability to replicate in unlimited numbers without losing their total potency.

-Totipotent cells can develop into any cell type, which makes them ideal for cell and gene therapies as well as tissue engineering for transplants and replacement of diseased cells. By learning about the process of division, we can find out what goes wrong in disease states and then investigate ways to prevent diseased cell production and division.
Where are they found
Adult stem cells have been identified in many organs and tissues, including brain, bone marrow, peripheral blood, blood vessels, skeletal muscle, skin, teeth, heart, gut, liver, ovarian epithelium, and testis.

Cord Blood Stem Cells
Cord Blood Stem Cells comes from the umbilical cord after birth
They are multipotent hematopoietic stem cells
The Positives of Cord Blood
less likely to be rejected because there are no features to reject
not likely to attract the host (graft vs host disease) because there are no well-developed immune cells.

Current Applications
Future of Cord Blood Stem Cells
Cord blood already treats life-threatening diseases with transfusions of it.
It could also be used as regenerative medicine, to regrow blood cells for people who have lost blood.
They are easy to get and hard to reject which makes them the future of disease that are usually cured with bone marrow stem cells or peripheral blood stem cells
The History of Stem Cells
Stem Cell Timeline
Till & McCulloch established foundation for stem cell science
Mid 1974
: Congress banned all federally funded fetal tissue research
Federal Panel approved funding of embryo research
August 2001:
President Bush prohibited federal funding of human Embryonic Stem Cell research
November 2007:
Yamanaka and Thomson Independently Derive iPS (Induced Pluipotent) Cells
August 2013:
World's first (chemically made) burger is made from Cow Stem Cells
Scientists are trying to find better ways to grow large quantities of adult stem cells and to manipulate them to generate specific cell types so they can be used to treat an injury or disease.
Some examples of potential treatments are
regenerating bone using cells from bone marrow stroma

developing insulin-producing cells for type 1 diabetes

repairing damaged heart muscle
Future of Stem Cells
Stem cells may change the way of practicing medicine,they may be used to replace or repair damaged tissues and organs
Could also be used to gain a better understanding of how genetics work in the early stages of cell development.

Diseases that could see revolutionary advances
Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, diabetes, spinal cord injury, heart disease, stroke, arthritis, cancer, and burns.

How does it help
How is it wrong
Cure incurable diseases
Other diseases like cancer
Replace organs
need for organs outweighs number available
Test new drugs
on diff types of cells, before on humans
Protect possible human life
no guarantee how long will live
Save people from dying
already lived some

What is right?
doesn't count
counts after two weeks
counts after fertilization
Down syndrome
And many others
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What happens to the zygote?
-It is after approximately four days that the cells begin to specialize into pluripotent cells
-Petri Dish
-machines that help the study of gene and protein expression of stem cells
-nutrients for IVF stem cells


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