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Critical Thinking

Philosophy Section 1

Charlotte Peak

on 7 September 2009

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Transcript of Critical Thinking

Critical Thinking Fallacies Circular/Begging the question False dilemma Slippery Slope Affirming the consequent Denying the antecedent Post hoc ergo propter hoc Ad hominem/attacking the person Appeals to consequences Appeals to illegitimate authority Valid Invalid Argument Sound Unsound Deductive Inductive Conditionals Types of sentence Statement Venn diagrams Every day
language arguments Hidden premises If.....then


....or..... If x then y - x = antecedent
y = consequent thence There are four different types of sentence

Statement/Proposition - eg I am wearing a hat.

Question - Are you wearing a hat?

Command/Imperative - Wear the hat!!

Expression of emotion - Eeewwww hat! An argument is unsounds in one of two ways.
EITHER - it is invalid which renders it unsound
OR the premises are false. eg - Snow is white
Grass is green
so flowers are pretty This is invalid as there is nol logical connection between the premises to the conclusion.
Because it is invalid it is automatically unsound You cannot have an invalid, sound argument!! eg All girls are bald
Georgie is a girl
so Georgie is Bald This is a valid argument
But it is unsound as the
premises are false A sound argument is the best kind of argument you can have! It is a valid argument with true premises that guarantee a true conclusion eg All dogs are mammals
A poodle is a type of dog
So a podle is a mammal This is a valid argument With true premises So its the best
kind of argument. A statement is a type of sentence that makes a claim. It can either be true or false. eg - Santa lives at the North Pole
eg - Ice is frozen water. Inductive argument argue from specific claims to universal claims
They usually make conclusions beyond their premises. they are often invalid They are often based on experience They cannot guarantee conclusion and only generate probable conclusion eg - All the cows I have seen are black and white
So all cows are black and white eg Hamish wears slippers
Hamish is Scottish
All Scots must wear slippers. Deductive arguents are often valid in form They argue from specific claims to universal claims Their conclusions do not go outwith their premises Their conclusions are guaranteed from the premises eg All Scots wear slippers
Hamish is a scot
so Hamish wears slippers
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