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Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
Transcript of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
survived only a few days Mohandas and Kasturba had four more children, all sons: Harilal, Manilal, Ramdas, and Devdas. Gandhi's father died earlier that year "As we didn't know much about marriage, for us it meant only wearing new clothes, eating sweets and playing with relatives."
-Mohandas Gandhi Civil Rights Movement in South Africa (1893-1914) Gandhi refused to move from first class to the third class and was beaten up Gandhi was thrown off a train at Pietermaritzburg Officers made Ghandhi remove his turban by force, but he refused After witnessing racism, prejudice and injustice against Indians in South Africa, he began to question his place in society and his peoples standing in the British Empire. When Gandhi landed in Duron, a mob of white settlers attacked him (He refused to press charges against any mob members) Gandhi helped found the Natal Indian Congress in 1894 At a mass protest meeting held in Johannesburg on September 11th, Gandhi adopted his evolving methodology of Satyagraha, or non-violent protest, for the first time In 1915, Gandhi returned from South Africa to live in India. He spoke at the conventions of the Indian National Congress but was introduced to Indian issues, politics and the Indian people primarily by Gopal Krishna Gokhale, a respected leader of the Congress Party at the time. Struggle for Indian Independence (1915-1945) In April 1918, during the latter part of World War I, Viceroy invited Gandhi to a War Conference in Delhi Perhaps to show his support for the Empire and help his case for India's independence, Gandhi agreed to actively recruit Indians for the war effort. Gandhi employed non-cooperation, non-violence and peaceful resistance as his "weapons" in the struggle against the British Raj Gandhi had called off this major campaign Gandhi was arrested on March 10, 1922, tried for sedition, and sentenced to six years' imprisonment. He began his sentence on March 18th 1922. He was released in February 1924 for an appendicitis operation, having served only 2 years. Salt Satyagraha (Salt March) Gandhi launched a new satyagraha against the tax on salt on March 1930 Gandhi started a Salt March to Dandi from March 12th to April 6th, where he marched 241 miles from Ahmedabad to Dandi Thousands of Indians joined him on this march to the sea Britain responded by imprisoning over 60,000 people The British government, represented by Lord Edward Irwin, decided to negotiate with Gandhi The Gandhi-Irwin Pact was signed in March 1931 The British Government agreed to free all political prisoners, in return for the suspension of civil disobedience movement Gandhi was invited to attend the Round Table Conference in London as a representative for India "I want world sympathy in this battle of right against might"-
Dandi April 5, 1930 World War II and Quit India Jawaharla Nehru sitting next to Gandhi at the AICC General Session, 1942 Gandhi at Dandi, April 5th, 1930, at the end of the Salt March Gandhi in South Africa Gandhi in 1918 Young Gandhi in 1876 When WWII broke out in 1939, all Congressmen from Britian resigned from office Gandhi declared that India could not be party to a war being fought for democratic freedom, while that freedom was denied to India itself Gandhi drafted a resolution calling for the British to Quit India Quit India became the most forceful movement in the history of the struggle, with mass arrests and violence on an unprecedented scale. Gandhi and the entire Congress working Committee were arrested in Bombay by the British on August 9th, 1942, Gandhi was held for two years in the Aga Khan Palace in Pune. His 50 year-old Secretary Mahadev Desai died of a heart attack, and his wife Kasturba died after 18 months imprisonment on February 22, 1944. Six weeks later, Gandhi suffersd a severe malaria attack and was released for surgery British gave clear indications that power would be transferred to India Partition of India While the Indian National Congress and Gandhi called for the British to quit India, the Muslim League passed a resolution for them to divide and quit, in 1943 When Jinnah (a lawyer and leader of the All-Indian Muslim Leage) called for Direct Action, on August 16th, 1946, Gandhi was infuriated and visited the most riot Prone area to stop the massacres On the 14th and 15th of August, 1947 the Indian Independance Act was Invoked and the following carnage witnessed a displacement of up to 12.5 million people in the former British Indian Empire Assassination On January 30th, 1948, Gandhi was shot while he was walking to a platform which he was to address a prayer meeting The assassin, Nathuram Godse, was a Hindu nationalist with links to the extremist Hindu Mahasabha, who held Gandhi responsible for weakening India by insisting upon a payment for Pakistan Nathuram Godse was executed on November 15th, 1949 It was believed that Gandhi's last words were "Oh God" Nathuram Godse Group photo of people accused in the murder of Mohandas Gandhi Gandhi's ashes at Khan Palace (Pune, India) Raj Ghat, Delhi is a memorial to Mahatma Gandhi that marks the spot of his cremation Principles,practices, and beliefs Gandhi dedicated his life to the wider purpose of discovering truth, or Satya He called his autobiography, The Story of My Experiments with Truth The essence of Satyagraha (holding of truth) is that if seeks to eliminate anatagonisms without harming the anagonists themselves and seek to "purify" it to a higher level Gandhi summarized his beliefs first when he said "God is Truth". He would later change this statement to "Truth is God". "God is Truth. The way to truth lies through ahimsa (non-violence)"- Sabarmati March 13, 1927 Quotes from The Story of My Experiments with truth: "An eye for an eye makes the whole world blind". "There are many causes that I am prepared to die for but no causes that I am prepared to kill for." Gandhi was born a Hindu and practised Hinduism all his life Gandhi's house, now a monument, New Dalhi Literary Works Gandhi was a prolific writer Gandhi edited several newspapers including Harijan, Indian Opinion, and Young Indian Gandhi also wrote several books including his autobiography, An Autobiography of My Experiments with Truth, Satyagraha in South Africa (about his struggle there), Hind Swaraj (a political pamphlet) Gandhi also wrote extensively on vegetarianism, diet and health, religion, social reforms, etc Gandhi's complete works were published by the Indian government under the name, The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi, in the 1960's The writings comprised about 50,000 pages published in about a hundred volumes Gandhi writing a story Map of India and other countries Legacy and depictions in popular culture Monument to Gandhi in new Belgrade, Serbia Gandhi influenced important leaders and political movements, like Martin Luther King, James Lawson, ect "Christ gave us the goals and Mahatma Gandhi the tactics."- Martin Luther King Jr, 1955 Gandhi's life and teachings inspired many who specifically referred to Gandhi as their mentor or who dedicated their lives to spreading Gandhi's ideas Albert Einstein exchanged written letters with Gandhi, and called him "a role model for the generations to come". The "United National General Assembly" declared that on October 2nd, it would be "the International Day of Non-Violence. On January 30th, there is a School Day of Non-Violence and Peace Many movies were made with Gandhi, for example the 1982 film Gandhi Power Point by: Andy Marquez, Elizabeth (Fishy) Hernandez, and Javier Esparza.