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Emergence of Global Sport
Transcript of Emergence of Global Sport
Development of Modern Sport
Module handout - Keep up!
Build on our introduction and last week
Add some structure
Hacking, handling - competition between the schools
19C - Codification - Eton (1847), Rugby (1845)
Governing bodies - FA (1863), RFU (1871)
Theoretical point - Habitus
Seminar tasks within the session & set up
18C aristocracy and gentry - attempts to ban
The 'civilising' of football
Development of Boxing
From sword to fist
Fist to mufflers - Blood
Threshold of repugnance
Sportisation - codification of rules
Unintended consequences - protects hands
Leisure spectating - Gambling
Knock down rules, rounds, weight classifications - Why?
Todays session plan, aims and what you should have in your brain by the end...
firstname.lastname@example.org - TTA-G4
You need to manage this - I will signpost but it is your responsibility
Sportisation process - The meaning of 'sport' changes
Shift from field sports (prep for war) >
ball games & athletic comp
18C see an increase in speed - Civilising spurt
From functional to 'ends in themselves'
Is there an easier way to kill a 'pest' and put a ball in a hole?
So what is the significance of this?
Changes in social patterns/relations
What's the point?
'Sport' was we know it starts to be created
Two examples - Football and boxing
Strict limitation on numbers
Specialization around kicking, handling and tackling
Centralization of rule making
Specific roles within the game
A set of written rules
Clearly defined sanctions for rule breaking
What else is going on at this time???
Industrialisation - Work teams (working class),
Saturday games, pay, spectators
Modernisation - erosion of natural & God given male power
Sport as a 'male preserve'
Empire - Globalisation
Same groups of men codify sport and expand the empire - Spreading habitus
Why is this important?
Society is changing - people are changing
Socially conditioned 2nd nature
Often discussed as instinct
But in reality it is learned behaviors
Social stratification/fault lines
In groups - What elements are within your/our habitus?
Now... How does 'sport' go global?
Maguire, 1999 - Global Sport Book
Phases of globalisation
First & second phase - sportisation process
'Civilising spurt' - same people involved
The same class of people who participated in the pacification of and greater regularization of factional contests in Parliament were instrumental in the greater pacification and regularization of their pastimes... Sport and Parliament as they emerged in the 18th century were both characteristic of the same change in the power structure of England and in the social habitus of that class of people which emerged from the antecedent struggles as the ruling group.
(Elias, 1986, 40)
It is useful to think of this initial sportization of pastimes as occuring in two main waves: an 18C wave in which the principle pastimes that began to emerge as modern sports were cricket, fox hunting, horse racing and boxing; and a second, 19C wave in which soccer, rugby, tennis and athletics began to take on modern forms.
(Dunning, 1992a, 13)
3rd phase - 'Take off' - 1870s-1920s
Dev of a global achievement sport culture
Fair play & amateur ethos from England
The last quarter of the 19C, for example, witnessed the international sports organizations, the growth of competition between national teams, the worldwide acceptance of rules governing specific sports forms and the establishment of global competitions such as the Olympic Games. The 20C establishment of world championships in many sports is also indicative of the occurance of globalization processes in the sports world. The exponents of rationalized achievment sports were spreading its tentacles across the world.
(Maguire, 1999, 82)
Later an achievement sport more full developed in USA
Habitus - global (sporting) body culture
1920s - 1960s American ideologies begin to take over
Diffusion of american sports in centers of American influence
'American' male version of achievement sport wins out
The American ideals thus replaced the Antique and English modules. The Europeans copied the approaches which they judged were responsible for American successes in physical education, sport...
(Quanz, 1991, 130)
Why these contestations?
Within your essays situate sport within wide social processes
Amateurism is replaced with seriousness
Continuation of the decline of the English
Continuation of increase in national identity
Sport increasingly used as a political vehicle - Cold war
Many more players on a global scale - Beating the West?
Sportisation of lifestyle activities
Scientisation, comodification, commercialisation
Who does this benefit?
Go back to the notes you made on the reading
Bringing things together
- Where might these have come from?
Turn these into a 500 word essay on the theme presented today
Reading for next week -
Maguire, J. (1994). Sport, Identity Politics, and Globalization: Diminishing Contrasts and Increasing Varieties
Key conceptual idea for your essay
Task - What make up 'sport'???