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African Americans: Race/Rep

Kyle, Simeon, Sean

Ashley Maricich

on 13 December 2013

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Transcript of African Americans: Race/Rep

Image by Tom Mooring
: Negative connotations and stereotypes are
attributed to African American about their physical
features and intelligence. Connotations and stereotypes include exaggerated facial features, the idea that African Americans are subordinate or subhuman to other races,
and that they are not intelligent.

This cartoon drawing
exemplifies the common misconceptions about African Americans; large facial features and the notion that they are not intelligent.
"African–American characters...are treated more negatively, and in fact conform to the two branches of overt racist figuration: the criminal and the clown." (Parisi 169)
The end of each line has been spelled to rhyme with the word ‘n word.’ They purposefully spell figure “figger”--> stereotype that African American people do not speak or spell properly.
Exaggerated facial features, such as a big nose and large lips. The card Made in 1951 --> civil rights movements were happening.
Titled as a ‘Texas Boast Card’ --> to boast is to be proud of something you have done or said.
"...in situations where a stereotype about a group's intellectual abilities is relevant...Black [people] bear an extra cognitive and emotional burden not borne by people for whom the stereotype does not apply." (Aronson 114)
The three men are drawn with exaggerated features making them look almost clown –like or subhuman. There is also a paper nailed to the wall with the heading “Rules”. Underneath the heading there are many misspelled words and grammatically incorrect sentences --> racial stereotype that African Americans are uneducated or illiterate. There is writing on the table that says “Cinch Party” --> referring to a lynch group; involved in the hanging of many innocent African Americans.
This political cartoon shows how African Americans have been misrepresented. While the white man has very realistic and clean cut features, the African American man has very exaggerated features (i.e. large lips and nose). The cartoon is also implying that African Americans are unintelligent. One makes that assumption based upon the man's facial expression and unkempt appearance.
"These parodies pictured
the Negro as a comical, carefree, lazy, simple buffoon,whose chief interest in life was to steal and eat chicken,chase 'possums, sling a razor, drink gin" (Clark 545)
Works Cited

Aronson, Joshua, Fried, Carrie, B., and Good, Catherine. "Reducing the Effects of Stereotype Threat on African American College Students by
Shaping Theories of Intelligence." Journal of Experiental Social Psychology 38:2, (2002): 113-125. Web. 1 Dec 2013.

Blair, Irene V., Charles M. Judd, and Jennifer L. Fallman. "The Automaticity Of Race And Afrocentric Facial Features In Social
Judgments."Journal Of Personality And Social Psychology 87.6 (2004): 763-778. PsycARTICLES. Web. 1 Dec. 2013.

Charles, Christopher A. D. "Skin Bleachers' Representations of Skin Color in Jamaica." Journal of Black Studies 40.2 (Nov. 2009): 153-70. Sage.
Web. 29 Nov 2013.

Cinch Party, circa 1911. Werner von Boltenstern
Postcard Collection, Department of Archives and Special Collections, William H. Hannon Library, Loyola Marymount University, Los Angeles, CA.

Clark, Edgar. "Negro Stereotypes": The Journal of Negro Education 17:4, 545-549. (1948).

Maddox, Keith B. "Perspectives On Racial Phenotypicality Bias." Personality & Social Psychology Review (Lawrence Erlbaum Associates) 8.4
(2004): 383-401. Academic Search Complete. Web. 1 Dec. 2013.

Parisi, Peter. "When the “Good One” is “Baaad”:
Modern Racism in John Singleton's Shaft." Souls: A Critical Journal of Black Politics, Culture, and Society 10:2, 165-178. (2008). Web. 1 Dec 2013.

Texas Postcard, circa 1951. Werner von Boltenstern
Postcard Collection, Department of Archives and Special Collections, William H. Hannon Library, Loyola Marymount University, Los Angeles, CA.

Watermelon Postcard, circa 1907. Werner von
Boltenstern Postcard Collection, Department of Archives and Special Collections, William H. Hannon Library, Loyola Marymount University, Los Angeles, CA.

White as Snow. Werner von Boltenstern Postcard
Collection, Department of Archives and Special Collections, William H. Hannon Library, Loyola Marymount University, Los Angeles, CA.

This postcard visibly racism in the figure of an African American male eating watermelon while the comment on the card says, "You can plainly see how miserable I am". It has a very negative connotation when I first read the caption. It shows the male figure with huge teeth and lips conveying the message that black people are the most related to primates. The use of the word "plainly" indicates the black figure is "dumb" up. The man is plain and offers nothing except to eat watermelon. The next thing I was drawn to was the personal message that was written on the front. It said that this reminded them of the fourth of July and that they cannot wait to celebrate together soon. I am guessing the person who sent the card was white because they felt that this postcard was completely acceptable
She is taking her time trying to wash as much dirt of the child so he looks as light as possible. This is because being black is considered ugly, inferior, and grotesque . The mothers attempt to make her child look “lighter” by washing him more adds to the fact that most Americans in this era believed that to be lighter was to be better and have an advantage. Even in the 21st century, we have a black president and yet being “too dark” is considered less attractive. In this historical post card, although it appears comical, it is a depiction of a problem that still plagues America, the fact the colorism is present today as it was in (whenever this post card was created) and how having a darker skin tone is still considered as a disadvantage.
The Perceptions
of African Americans in Everyday Culture

"Racial group
members whose appearance most closely resembles our representation of the "typical" category member are more likely to be viewed through the lens of the category stereotypes and evaluations. This phenomenon could be termed racial phenotypicality bias". (Maddox 383)
“If you’re light, you’re alright”
(Hunter 175).
“The participants bleach their skin to remove facial blemishes, to make their faces “cool,” as a result of peer influence, to lighten their complexion, to appear beautiful and to attract a partner, to follow a popular fad, and to have the visual stimulus of bleached skin because it makes them feel good.” (Charles 153).
"it has been generally assumed that the stereotype will be applied to the same degree once categorization has occurred... bluntly stated, “If I can lump thirteen million of my fellow citizens under a simple formula, ‘Negroes are stupid, dirty, and inferior,’ I simplify my life enormously. I simply avoid them one and all”. (Blair 763)
"Finally, stereotypes can elicit a selective perception process, thereby blocking open-minded consideration of what blacks say. Rather than being viewed at the moment of utterance, for its own worth and in the specific discussion situation, black communication would be preconceived and unequally evaluated through the referent of stereotypes" (Ogawa 280)
By: Sean Buckle, Kyle Cavanaugh, Ashley Maricich, and Simeon Phillips
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