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Philosophy for Children P4C

A Programme in Thinking Skills & Emotional Intelligence
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Brenda Hamilton

on 24 January 2013

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Transcript of Philosophy for Children P4C

A Programme for CfE Thinking Through Philosohy The Four Capacitities Successful Learners
Responsible Citizens
Confident Individuals
Effective Contributers Raising Attainment Post Sutton Report 2012
Recommendations for raising attainment:
Open Questioing
Effective Feedback
Peer Learning Thinking through Philosophy
A Programme in DevelopmentThinking Skills & Emotional John Stuart Mill argued that we do not learn to read and write, to ride or swim merely by being told how to do it, we learn by doing it - similarly, only by involving children in democratic processes of discussion and decision-making will they ever learn how to practise it
(Fisher 2003). Thinking Skills, Emotional Intelligence
&
CfE Programme Outline
It is practical philosophy – it is about the process, not the teaching of facts.
The process explores philosophical questions through Socratic questioning (in a ‘community of enquiry’)
Through this process of dialogue emotional intelligence & ‘thinking skills’ are developed www.sapere.net
www.teaching thinking.net
www.dialogueworks.co.uk
www.thephilosophyman.com
www.wilord.com
P4C.com Websites The Importance of Descartes It is sustainable as a low cost high impact factor in raising attainment! A Final Point on P4C Philosophy cannot claim to be the only discipline to promote thinking in education but it is a discipline self-consciously devoted to thinking, and it has developed an abundance of tools and techniques aimed at improving the quality of thought. As Dewey and Lipman demonstrated with their work, there is a world of difference in outcome to be expected from an education that emphasises the memorisation of knowledge and one that treats such knowledge as material with
which to think. Philosophy & P4C Some points worth considering:
It’s not an ‘easy teach’. It is a long time for pupils to be sitting ‘thinking’.
It works so much better where the class teacher is familiar with the stimulus material before the lesson even if not the person teaching the lesson
Skills Progression , assessment & peer evaluation is built into the programme
It would be a great psychological start up for a Monday morning to begin with the calming exercise and a ‘switch on to learning’ for the new week from P5 to S1.
  Teaching P4C I can explain my own responses to the benefits and challenges presented by the increasing diversity of belief to modern Scotland and the wider world. RME 4-09c
I am becoming aware that people’s beliefs and values affect their actions. RME 1-09c
I am developing my understanding of how my own and other people’s beliefs and values affect their actions. RME 2-09d
I am developing my understanding of the nature of belief and morality. RME 3-09d Experiences & Outcomes RME The Programme fosters listening and talking for learning as required by CfE. Pupils:
 engage with others in group and class discussions of appropriate complexity
 learn collaboratively – for example, when problem-solving
 explain their thinking to others
 explore factors which influence them and persuade them in order to help them think about the reliability of information
(LIT 2-02a, 2.04a, 2.07a, 2.09a) Experiences & Outcomes: Listening & Talking Keir Bloomer According to Steve Trickey (Senior Psychologist) in Clackmannanshire
The study provided robust evidence that one hour of classroom philosophical enquiry each week in primary schools can be highly cost-effective in promoting:
developments in cognitive ability
developments in critical reasoning & dialogue in the
classroom
emotional & social developments What were the Conclusions and Implications of the Clackmannanshire Study The Programme was evaluated through:
Standardised tests to experimental & control classes to provide measures of cognitive ability & self-esteem.
Analysis of classroom discussion using video recordings to provide measures of critical thinking & dialogue.
The systematic analysis of the perceptions of pupils, teachers and head-teachers using
Questionnaires to provide an indicator of social/emotional development. Programme Evaluation The study investigated two questions:
‘Can philosophical enquiry lead to positive outcomes in children when simultaneously used across primary schools in a local education authority with classes of 30 children and teachers with little previous experience of collaborative enquiry methods.’
‘If so, what is the nature of these outcomes?’
The Clackmannanshire Study Support for teachers eg.
‘Thinking through Mysteries’ (P13)
Using Mysteries for Diagnostic & Formative Assessment (P15)
Critical Challenges (P16)
Criterion-Referenced Matrix for Critical Thinking (P18-19)
Assessment & Evaluation (P20)
Observation Sheet (P21)
Assessing Dialogue (P22)
Evaluation Form for Philosophical Enquiry (P23) What does the Programme Provide (1) Give thinking time
Second – questioning
Ask all pupils
Provide cues and assistance
Slow the rate of questioning
Listen
Withhold judgement
Keep it simple Strategies for Good Questioning By using a wide variety of questions, different kinds of thinking can be stimulated. Such questions can include:
What reasons do you have for saying that? (Clarifying)
Why do you think that? (Probing)
Is there another point of view? (Exploring)
You said ...but what about ..? (Scaffolding)
How do you know that? (Evidence)
Who can summarise the main points for us?
(Evaluating) Skilful Questioning The role of the teacher is not a traditional one of imparting knowledge or facts but is one of helping the process of the dialogue by:
Focusing attention on important points;
Modelling good questioning
Encouraging pupils in appropriate behaviours
Rewarding positive contributions with praise;
Not being content with conversation
Directing the discussion towards Truth The Role of the Teacher The programme has a rational structure and a moral structure
The rational is about exploring ideas through dialogue (part B of the evaluation form)
The moral includes the application of emotional intelligence and could be called the ‘spirit of enquiry’ A Community of Enquiry (1) Information handling
Enquiry
Reasoning
Creative Thinking
Evaluation
‘We must give children time to think, we must teach them to think, and we must challenge them to think’. Thinking Skills A commitment throughout all the primary schools to ‘promote thinking for learning’ through collaborative enquiry.
A rigorous evaluation involving a partnership between Clackmannanshire Council & the University of Dundee.
This involved using Paul Cleghorn’s ‘Thinking through Philosophy’ programme. Who and what was involved? Lipman’s method involved children sitting in a circle and taking turns reading aloud from a work of fiction that is intended to stimulate philosophical discussion.
The teacher directs the conversation at first, then lets students raise their own questions and answer them. Professor Lipman called the exercise a “community of inquiry.”
In the process, children cover much the same ground that philosophers have (see my update this does happen!) Matthew Lipman THINKING THROUGH PHILOSOPHY

A PROGRAMME IN THINKING SKILLS & EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE HEADING FOR HELL! Background:
2 very motivated primary teachers interested in P4C
Mixed ability groups from P5 & P5/6
&
Some free P4C from internet to encourage constructive dialogue in the classroom To follow video footage of P4C in action in Murrayfield PS I am able to development of beliefs and morality. RME 4-09d
I can apply philosophical enquiry to explore questions or ethical issues. RME 4-09e Experiences & Outcomes RME I can explain why different people think that values such as honesty, respect and compassion are important, and I show respect for others.
RME 2-09c
I can explain how the different beliefs that people have, including beliefs which are independent of religion, relate to their moral viewpoints and how this leads them to respond to moral issues. RME 3-09c Experiences & Outcomes RME Successful Learners
Confident Individuals
Responsible Citizens
Effective Contributors The 4 Capacities 30 Lessons in 3 Blocks. Each Lesson has:
Teaching Notes
Stimulus (usually story or poem)
Theme
Questions for Thinking
Thought for the Week What does the Programme Provide (2) Open questions, like those used by Socrates in ancient Greece, have many potential benefits, (see Sutton Report) they also:
encourage more flexible thinking,
allow depth of discussion,
test the limits of knowledge rather than one item of knowledge,
encourage better assessment of children’s beliefs
offer the possibility to clear up misunderstandings
result in unanticipated and unexpected answers, new hypotheses and connections to previous knowledge. OPEN QUESTIONS The Focusing Exercise (VIP see Murrayfield video footage)
Linking with the previous week
Pair/Group work
The Stimulus – story or poem
Dialogue – key to the programme
Closures
Thought for the week The Structure of Each Philosophy Session Dialogue using open-ended questioning (see section on ‘Skilful Questioning’)
To explore issues and enquire after ‘Truth’
There is a possibility, & even expectation that views will change & develop through this dialogue in a ‘community of enquiry’ Developing the ‘Socratic Method’ within the Classroom Having vision & values
Seeing holistically
Being ‘field independent’
Spontaneously adaptive Spiritual Intelligence self- awareness
self- regulation
motivation
empathy
social skills
These intelligences bring the youngster to a point where
choice is possible instead of
habitual behaviour Emotional Intelligence Develops & strengthens ‘emotional intelligence’
Develops ‘spiritual intelligence’
Develops ‘thinking skills’ Strengths of this Programme EVERY CHILD PARTICIPATES IN P4C = SOCIAL INCLUSION Thinking Through Philosophy by
Paul Cleghorn
A Programme in Thinking Skills & Emotional Intelligence To test whether a weekly collaborative enquiry can lead to
Developments in cognitive ability
Developments in critical reasoning skills & dialogue in the classroom
Emotional & social developments Objectives of the Clackmannanshire Project To foster resilience & emotional intelligence and encourage children to become reasonable thinkers & wise decision makers. Aim of the Clackmannanshire Programme In Clackmannanshire the ‘thinking skills & emotional intelligence’ programme was developed using the ‘philosophy for children’ (PC4) format.
The programme promoted social and cognitive development using collaborative enquiry (a community of enquiry) in the classroom. THINKING THROUGH PHILOSOPHY Socratic Method Background to Programme & Philosophy for Children:
Socratic Method
Matthew Lipman’s P4C
Clackmannanshire Initiative (Keir Bloomer) and
Paul Cleghorn’s Thinking Through Philosophy programme Promoting Social and Cognitive Development Through Collaborative Enquiry To introduce the programme to HTs & staff
To teach the programme in primary classes (P6 & P7) & in secondary (S1)

The following is a brief synopsis of this programme & how it promotes raising attainment . My Role: August - December or Descartes’
Cogito ergo sum Ensuring pupils:
Focus attention on the speaker
Don’t ‘put down’ others
Are not forced to speak
Respect others’ views
Are truthful
Are open minded Moral Structure Ensuring participants:
Ask open & inviting questions
Give evidence & examples
Make comparisons
Summarise & evaluate
Seek clarification Rational Structure A Community of Enquiry (2) Programme Outline
It is practical philosophy – it is about the process, not the teaching of facts.
The process explores philosophical questions through Socratic questioning (in a ‘community of enquiry’)
Through this process of dialogue emotional intelligence & ‘thinking skills’ are developed It is sustainable as a low cost high impact factor in raising attainment! A Final Point on P4C Philosophy cannot claim to be the only discipline to promote thinking in education but it is a discipline self-consciously devoted to thinking, and it has developed an abundance of tools and techniques aimed at improving the quality of thought. As Dewey and Lipman demonstrated with their work, there is a world of difference in outcome to be expected from an education that emphasises the memorisation of knowledge and one that treats such knowledge as material with
which to think. Philosophy & P4C I can explain my own responses to the benefits and challenges presented by the increasing diversity of belief to modern Scotland and the wider world. RME 4-09c
I am becoming aware that people’s beliefs and values affect their actions. RME 1-09c
I am developing my understanding of how my own and other people’s beliefs and values affect their actions. RME 2-09d
I am developing my understanding of the nature of belief and morality. RME 3-09d Experiences & Outcomes RME The Programme fosters listening and talking for learning as required by CfE. Pupils:
 engage with others in group and class discussions of appropriate complexity
 learn collaboratively – for example, when problem-solving
 explain their thinking to others
 explore factors which influence them and persuade them in order to help them think about the reliability of information
(LIT 2-02a, 2.04a, 2.07a, 2.09a) Experiences & Outcomes: Listening & Talking John Stuart Mill argued that we do not learn to read and write, to ride or swim merely by being told how to do it, we learn by doing it - similarly, only by involving children in democratic processes of discussion and decision-making will they ever learn how to practise it
(Fisher 2003). Thinking Skills, Emotional Intelligence
&
CfE 30 Lessons in 3 Blocks. Each Lesson has:
Teaching Notes
Stimulus (usually story or poem)
Theme
Questions for Thinking
Thought for the Week What does the Programme Provide (2) The Focusing Exercise (VIP see Murrayfield video footage)
Linking with the previous week
Pair/Group work
The Stimulus – story or poem
Dialogue – key to the programme
Closures
Thought for the week The Structure of Each Philosophy Session Having vision & values
Seeing holistically
Being ‘field independent’
Spontaneously adaptive Spiritual Intelligence To test whether a weekly collaborative enquiry can lead to
Developments in cognitive ability
Developments in critical reasoning skills & dialogue in the classroom
Emotional & social developments Objectives of the Clackmannanshire Project In Clackmannanshire the ‘thinking skills & emotional intelligence’ programme was developed using the ‘philosophy for children’ (PC4) format.
The programme promoted social and cognitive development using collaborative enquiry (a community of enquiry) in the classroom. THINKING THROUGH PHILOSOPHY Socratic Method THINKING THROUGH PHILOSOPHY

A PROGRAMME IN THINKING SKILLS & EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE HEADING FOR HELL! www.sapere.net
www.teaching thinking.net
www.dialogueworks.co.uk
www.thephilosophyman.com
www.wilord.com
P4C.com Websites Background:
2 very motivated primary teachers interested in P4C
Mixed ability groups from P5 & P5/6
&
Some free P4C from internet to encourage constructive dialogue in the classroom To follow video footage of P4C in action in Murrayfield PS The Importance of Descartes Some points worth considering:
It’s not an ‘easy teach’. It is a long time for pupils to be sitting ‘thinking’.
It works so much better where the class teacher is familiar with the stimulus material before the lesson even if not the person teaching the lesson
Skills Progression , assessment & peer evaluation is built into the programme
It would be a great psychological start up for a Monday morning to begin with the calming exercise and a ‘switch on to learning’ for the new week from P5 to S1.
  Teaching P4C I am able to development of beliefs and morality. RME 4-09d
I can apply philosophical enquiry to explore questions or ethical issues. RME 4-09e Experiences & Outcomes RME I can explain why different people think that values such as honesty, respect and compassion are important, and I show respect for others.
RME 2-09c
I can explain how the different beliefs that people have, including beliefs which are independent of religion, relate to their moral viewpoints and how this leads them to respond to moral issues. RME 3-09c Experiences & Outcomes RME Keir Bloomer Successful Learners
Confident Individuals
Responsible Citizens
Effective Contributors The 4 Capacities According to Steve Trickey (Senior Psychologist) in Clackmannanshire
The study provided robust evidence that one hour of classroom philosophical enquiry each week in primary schools can be highly cost-effective in promoting:
developments in cognitive ability
developments in critical reasoning & dialogue in the
classroom
emotional & social developments What were the Conclusions and Implications of the Clackmannanshire Study The Programme was evaluated through:
Standardised tests to experimental & control classes to provide measures of cognitive ability & self-esteem.
Analysis of classroom discussion using video recordings to provide measures of critical thinking & dialogue.
The systematic analysis of the perceptions of pupils, teachers and head-teachers using
Questionnaires to provide an indicator of social/emotional development. Programme Evaluation The study investigated two questions:
‘Can philosophical enquiry lead to positive outcomes in children when simultaneously used across primary schools in a local education authority with classes of 30 children and teachers with little previous experience of collaborative enquiry methods.’
‘If so, what is the nature of these outcomes?’
The Clackmannanshire Study Support for teachers eg.
‘Thinking through Mysteries’ (P13)
Using Mysteries for Diagnostic & Formative Assessment (P15)
Critical Challenges (P16)
Criterion-Referenced Matrix for Critical Thinking (P18-19)
Assessment & Evaluation (P20)
Observation Sheet (P21)
Assessing Dialogue (P22)
Evaluation Form for Philosophical Enquiry (P23) What does the Programme Provide (1) Give thinking time
Second – questioning
Ask all pupils
Provide cues and assistance
Slow the rate of questioning
Listen
Withhold judgement
Keep it simple Strategies for Good Questioning By using a wide variety of questions, different kinds of thinking can be stimulated. Such questions can include:
What reasons do you have for saying that? (Clarifying)
Why do you think that? (Probing)
Is there another point of view? (Exploring)
You said ...but what about ..? (Scaffolding)
How do you know that? (Evidence)
Who can summarise the main points for us?
(Evaluating) Skilful Questioning Open questions, like those used by Socrates in ancient Greece, have many potential benefits, (see Sutton Report) they also:
encourage more flexible thinking,
allow depth of discussion,
test the limits of knowledge rather than one item of knowledge,
encourage better assessment of children’s beliefs
offer the possibility to clear up misunderstandings
result in unanticipated and unexpected answers, new hypotheses and connections to previous knowledge. OPEN QUESTIONS The role of the teacher is not a traditional one of imparting knowledge or facts but is one of helping the process of the dialogue by:
Focusing attention on important points;
Modelling good questioning
Encouraging pupils in appropriate behaviours
Rewarding positive contributions with praise;
Not being content with conversation
Directing the discussion towards Truth The Role of the Teacher The programme has a rational structure and a moral structure
The rational is about exploring ideas through dialogue (part B of the evaluation form)
The moral includes the application of emotional intelligence and could be called the ‘spirit of enquiry’ A Community of Enquiry (1) Dialogue using open-ended questioning (see section on ‘Skilful Questioning’)
To explore issues and enquire after ‘Truth’
There is a possibility, & even expectation that views will change & develop through this dialogue in a ‘community of enquiry’ Developing the ‘Socratic Method’ within the Classroom Information handling
Enquiry
Reasoning
Creative Thinking
Evaluation
‘We must give children time to think, we must teach them to think, and we must challenge them to think’. Thinking Skills self- awareness
self- regulation
motivation
empathy
social skills
These intelligences bring the youngster to a point where
choice is possible instead of
habitual behaviour Emotional Intelligence Develops & strengthens ‘emotional intelligence’
Develops ‘spiritual intelligence’
Develops ‘thinking skills’ Strengths of this Programme EVERY CHILD PARTICIPATES IN P4C = SOCIAL INCLUSION Thinking Through Philosophy by
Paul Cleghorn
A Programme in Thinking Skills & Emotional Intelligence A commitment throughout all the primary schools to ‘promote thinking for learning’ through collaborative enquiry.
A rigorous evaluation involving a partnership between Clackmannanshire Council & the University of Dundee.
This involved using Paul Cleghorn’s ‘Thinking through Philosophy’ programme. Who and what was involved? To foster resilience & emotional intelligence and encourage children to become reasonable thinkers & wise decision makers. Aim of the Clackmannanshire Programme Lipman’s method involved children sitting in a circle and taking turns reading aloud from a work of fiction that is intended to stimulate philosophical discussion.
The teacher directs the conversation at first, then lets students raise their own questions and answer them. Professor Lipman called the exercise a “community of inquiry.”
In the process, children cover much the same ground that philosophers have (see my update this does happen!) Matthew Lipman Background to Programme & Philosophy for Children:
Socratic Method
Matthew Lipman’s P4C
Clackmannanshire Initiative (Keir Bloomer) and
Paul Cleghorn’s Thinking Through Philosophy programme Promoting Social and Cognitive Development Through Collaborative Enquiry To introduce the programme to HTs & staff
To teach the programme in primary classes (P6 & P7) & in secondary (S1)

The following is a brief synopsis of this programme & how it promotes raising attainment . My Role: August - December or Descartes’
Cogito ergo sum Ensuring pupils:
Focus attention on the speaker
Don’t ‘put down’ others
Are not forced to speak
Respect others’ views
Are truthful
Are open minded Moral Structure Ensuring participants:
Ask open & inviting questions
Give evidence & examples
Make comparisons
Summarise & evaluate
Seek clarification Rational Structure A Community of Enquiry (2)
Full transcript