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The Civil Rights Movement
Transcript of The Civil Rights Movement
March to Equality
Writings of MLK
Legislative and Executive Actions
The Great Society
Expanding the Struggle
The Supreme Court's Role
Legislation and Managing Change
-granted citizenship to those born in the U.S. and promises equal protection under the law
-Right to vote can't be denied because of race
-granted women the right to vote
Plessy v. Ferguson
upheld segregation of public facilities
Brown v. Board of Education
- overturned Plessy v. Ferguson decision and ruled that "separate but equal" schools were unconstitutional. Ordered all schools to desegregate "at deliberate speed."
Sweatt v. Painter
-Court ruled that a separate law school for African Americans at the University of Texas at Austin was unequal since it isolated students from future lawyers being trained in Austin, with whom its students would later interact.
1955- Rosa Parks refused to surrender her bus seat to a white passenger.
Parks' arrest led to a boycott of public buses in Montgomery, AL for 13 months.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
Martin Luther King Jr. led the boycott and was arrested and his home was bombed during the boycott.
March on Washington
1963-MLK and Civil Rights leaders marched on Washington D.C. to pressure Congress to pass a new Civil Rights bill. It was the largest demonstration for human rights in U.S. History with 250,000 people attending the march.
1961-Interracial groups rode buses throughout the South with the goal of ending segregation on public transportation. The riders often faced the risk of violence and death from those who opposed integration.
Trying to maintain the status quo
Congressional Bloc of Southern Democrats
Letter from Birmingham Jail
"We know through painful experience that freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor; it must be demanded by the oppressed. Frankly, I have yet to engage in a direct action that was 'well timed' in the view of those who have not suffered from segregation. For years I have heard the word 'Wait!' It rings in the ear of every Negro with piercing familiarity. This 'Wait' has always meant 'Never.' We must come to see...that 'justice too long delayed is justice denied.'"
I have a Dream Speech
"I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: we hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal. I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia, the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit together at the table of brotherhood. I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character."
Addressing Minority Rights
Desegregation of Armed Forces
Executive Order issued by President Truman in 1948.
Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and 1964
1957-gave federal courts the power to register African American voters.
prohibited discrimination based on race, color, religion or ethnic origin in hotels, restaurants, and all places of employment doing business with the federal government
cut federal funding to segregated schools
gave the federal government the power to register African-American voters
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Ended poll taxes, suspended literacy tests (both used to prevent African Americans from voting).
Provide bi-lingual assistance to language minority voters.
Dept. of Justice can monitor elections to ensure they are conducted fairly.
Addressing Economic Inequality in the U.S.
-requires employers with federal contracts to take positive steps to raise the number of minority employees to correct past injustices.
War on Poverty
-creation of Economic Opportunity Act
Medicare Act of 1965-healthcare for people over 65
Aid to Cities-created new cabinet position to help the nation's cities.
Banned sex discrimination in educational institutions.
Helped women pursue higher degrees, compete in sports and enter jobs and educational fields that had previously been dominated by men.
Felt that MLK's non violent approach was not powerful enough
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Women's Liberation Movement
American Indian Movement
Betty Friedan and the Feminine Mystique
"Each suburban wife struggles with it alone. As she made the beds, shopped for groceries, matched slipcover material, ate peanut butter sandwiches with her children, chauffeured Cub Scouts and Brownies, [and] lay beside her husband at night- she was afraid to ask even of herself the silent question- 'Is this all?'"
Equal Rights Amendment
Results of Movement
Gender equality in education and employment
New Attitudes about the view of women
Roe v. Wade
Sought greater respect for their heritage and introduced the term Native American.
Main focus on issues such as farm workers' voting and political rights.
Hector Perez Garcia- organized the GI Forum and advocated for fair treatment of Mexican American veterans.
Cesar Chavez-Started a group to support farm workers' rights in California.
Chicano Mural Movement
Mendez v. Westminster
Delgado v. Bastrop ISD
Hernandez v. Texas
White v. Regester
Wisconsin v. Yoder
Edgewood ISD v. Kirby
Segregation of children of a group was illegal without a special state law requiring it.
Segregation of Mexican-American children was illegal in Texas.
Ruled that Mexican Americans, though not a separate race, were still entitled as a class to protection under the 14th Amendment.
Required single member districts in Dallas and Bexar counties, so local groups could elect their own representatives.
U.S. Supreme Court struck down a Wisconsin law that required Amish children to attend school beyond 8th grade which violated freedom of religion.
Required changes in school finance to increase funding for students in poorer school districts.
Environmental Protection Agency
Set air and water pollution standards for cities and monitors and enforces regulations/activities….making new construction pass detailed environmental impact studies reviews before being approved/permitted…and allows private citizens to sue polluters under EPA
Endangered Species Act
…The ESA's primary goal is to prevent the extinction of imperiled plant and animal life, and secondly, to recover and maintain those populations by removing or lessening threats to their survival
Community Reinvesting Act of 1977
The CRA seeks to ensure the provision of credit to all parts of a community, regardless of the relative wealth or poverty of a neighborhood
How might this era be assessed?