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Cooperative Learning in the Classroom
Transcript of Cooperative Learning in the Classroom
Cooperative Learning directly addresses three pressing problems facing the U.S. Educational System"
1. Failure to hold & educate minority students;
2. Failure to successfully create positive race relations among students; &
3. Failure to socialize students toward pro-social values & behaviors such as respect and care for others.
Two types of data
support this assertion
1. Failure to hold and educate minority students
Cooperative Learning is working in structured groups in a cooperative manner toward a common goal.
"Cooperative Learning is not so much learning to cooperate as it is cooperating to learn"
(Wong & Wong, 1998)
3 Generalizations to guide Coop Learning
Models of Teaching
Marzano's Nine Instructional Strategies
Map of Pedagogical Knowledge
Learning is a balanced approach incorporating humanistic education
with "back to basics"
The U.S. principle of equal educational opportunity is not being realized.
One reason is
structure of most classrooms does not match
orientation of many
and low income students.
1) School Holding Power - Historically (1995) minority & majority students enrollment equalled in elementary schools but differentiated during middle & high school.
Source: DataQuest 2006
Consequences of high dropout rates:
Wasted human potential and tremendous economic loss.
The almost 70,000 dropouts in California during 2003-04, cost the state approximately $14 billion in lost wages.
Costs of low educational achievement:
85% of people incarcerated in U.S. are high school dropouts.
1 year prisoner cost (CA.) -
1 year student cost HARVARD -
Gaby Lomeli at UCSB -
(feels like it anyway)
A Wasted Resource
Source: Data Quest, 2011
California High School Exit Exam For Language Arts (of students enrolled)
Source: Data Quest, 2011
California High School Exit Exam For Math (of students enrolled)
Children enter school relatively color blind ...
a negative transformation occurs as they progress through school.
Negative effect on achievement & self esteem.
Schools can do more to foster positive race relations.
"San Jose State"
- changes in family structure, single parent homes (1 in 5), two parents working (over 50%), divorce rates.
dwindling fertility rates
have caused the absence of older siblings which affect the stages of moral development.
The pro-social socialization void results from...
2) Television (& video games) –
children have turned to television (98% of families own a T.V.), children watch over 25 hrs a week, advertisements promote product acquisition not positive interpersonal.
Another negative is program content - violence, etc.
Violent Incidents have skyrocketed over 50% since 2005 - Assaults have more than doubled since 2009 - Drug possession doubled since 2008 - Bullying & intimidation doubled since 2005.
Each yr. over $200 million is spent repairing damages to schools.
"Sandy Hook Newtown Conn. Tragedy"
"UC Santa Barbara"
Consequences of Pro-Social Socialization void
During the 12 months preceding a survey:
24.1% of students had thought seriously about attempting suicide.
"Race to Nowhere"- "Happy" - "Karoshi"
17.7% of students had made a specific plan to attempt suicide.
8.7% of students had attempted suicide.
2.8% of students had made a suicide attempt which resulted in an injury, poisoning, or overdose that required medical attention.
“Even now, social skills are more in demand in the workplace than are academic skills...”
U.S. schools are generally
competitive, individualistic & autocratic.
Remarkably our society, which prides itself on democratic principles, has settled on autocratic models of teaching.
Schools have also isolated themselves from parents & communities.
"Wawona Middle School"
3) Competitive and Individualistic School Practices
Each of you pick your role (facilitator, etc.)
Social Skills Acquisition
1. Organizing groups based on ability levels should be done sparingly
2. Coop groups should be kept rather small in size (3 to 4)
3. Coop Learning should be applied consistently and systematically but not overused
3. Base Groups
Think-pair-share, turn to your neighbor, clarify, closure
Designed to ensure enough time to complete academic assignments-several days or weeks
Long term (e.g. semester or year) created to provide students ongoing support
Implementing Coop Learning
Promotes higher achievement
Improves race relations in integrated classrooms
Motivates & enhances self-esteem
Develops communication and social skills which enhance ability to work together
21st century skills - critical thinking, problem solving, citizenship
Puts the responsibility for learning on the learner
Supports & encourages the low achieving student
Enhances lang. & listening skills
Supplements but does not replace direct instruction...replaces independent seat work
Desks or tables in teams of 4
Each team a different color
Each student place numbered 1-4
Team leader and partners are assigned and change weekly
Teams change monthly or at the beginning of a new unit
First team task is to form a daily team greeting
Record team contributions in the team's color to give each team ownership over their ideas
Coop. Structure "Corners"
Coop. Structure: Roundtable "Fantasy Vacation"
2) RACE RELATIONS
Principles of Cooperative Learning
1. Distributed Leadership
- "All group members are capable of understanding and learning and like each other when the task is done."
4. Social Skills Acquisition
- "The ability to work effectively in a group comes from skills that can be taught and learned."
Roundtable: Teaching Strategies,
Cooperative Structures, Important points
from this course
2. Heterogeneous Grouping
- "The most effective groups are heterogeneous in terms of social background, skill levels, physical capabilities & gender."
3. Positive Interdependence
- "All students are not willing to work in groups unless there is a built-in reason to do so."
5. Group Autonomy
- "Students learn to solve their own problems by resolving them on their own rather than being rescued from them by the teacher."
Better Trend Recently...
Grad Rates 2014-2015
Asian Students 93%
Anglo Students 83%
Hispanic Students 77.8%
African American 66%