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Moscow's Big Transitions
Transcript of Moscow's Big Transitions
In 1918, Moscow became the capital of Soviet Russia because it was further inland than St. Petersburg and the communists were afraid of staying near the borders.
Urbanization was seen as necessary to create an industrialized working class that would embrace communists ideals.
The Soviet Doctrine privileged urban life over rural life.
When Joseph Stalin began the industrial revolution in the 1930’s, it caused a wave of peasant migration to the city.
Moscow is a thriving center of arts, photography, and cinema.
In 1935, the first line of the Moscow Metro was opened and put into operation.
In 1939, Moscow begun to have regular TV transmission.
In 1941, they defeated the German forces in the battle of Moscow.
What causes a transition from an urban industrial to a post-industrial society?
A little Russian history :)
Cities of the World: World Regional Development by Stanley D. Brunn, Maureen Hays-Mitchell, Donald J. Zeigler
In 1917, the Communists staged a revolution and they imposed a totalitarian regime in Russia.
By the 1900s, the population of Moscow reached over 1 million people and the Industrial Revolution began to transform Russia.
History of Moscow
The city of Moscow was founded in 1147.
It was surrounded with dense forests that attracted many refugees who sought to hide from the Mongols in the 14th century.
Moskva river (Moscow’s namesake) facilitated trade, and Moscow’s central location along it provided a trade stop and markets for rural farmers/merchants.
In 1325, the residence of Metropolitan of Kiev and all Russia was moved from Vladimir to Moscow, making it the main religious center of the country.
In 1328, Moscow became the capital city.
By the early 17th century, Moscow had a population of about 200,000.
In 1713, the capital city of Russia was moved from Moscow to St. Petersburg.
Moscow suffered a great decline.
Patriotic War with Napoleon
desertion of Moscow.
Moscow was soon rebuilt thanks to the supply of cotton from Asia.
How Moscow Gained its Power
Economy becomes more service-based than manufacturing-based.
Soviet Union dissolved in 1991 and capitalism took hold of Moscow
Service sector rapidly outgrew the manufacturing sector and thus turned Moscow into a post-industrial city.
Examples: retail sector with permanent stores, foreign investment in the city created new businesses, and real estate companies.
Rural to Urban Industrial Society
A Moscow uprising during the Russian revolution, October 1917
Aviapark Shopping Mall in Moscow
Cause & Effect
Cause: The economy followed a capitalist model that was oriented towards consumer goods that were now cheaper and of better quality because the borders were now open.
Cause: Because the economy became market-driven, people left their declining cities in the outer parts of Russia and migrated to what is called “European Russia,” which includes cities like Moscow.
Cause: The migration of people and shifting economy in Moscow caused the city to become densely populated, forcing historic buildings to be torn down in exchange for new buildings that are more updated and modern but expensive.
Cause: Moscow, and other major Post-Soviet cities, are also accommodating more finance and retail services, as typical for post-industrial cities, because of this shift to a market economy.
Cause: Now that the economy is consumer-driven, there is more money to spend and an increasing demand for luxury and entertainment, but also an increase in prices.
Effect: There was a drop in the locally-produced goods market, a loss in profits for local industries, and as a result, the cities that were dependent on these two aspects became poor and unemployed.
Effect: The migration of people to European Russia led to other cities on the outer parts of Russia to face a decline in population, while the cities of European Russia, such as Moscow, faced dramatic increases in population.
Effect: These changes led to gentrification and the displacement of previous, long-time residents of Moscow. This only added to the growing population of poor citizens who had failed to adjust to the new era or lost their pension money that they had earned under the Soviet system.
Effect: This accommodation led to the construction of retail and business centers on the urban peripheral that actually continued to grow outwards to accommodate more centers and more people.
Effect: Because of the rise in prices of housing and goods, as well the poor fortunes of those who became victims of this economic shift, many could not afford these new prices, becoming homeless or turning to drugs, alcohol, and prostitution to deal with the changes.
Franz Anton von Gerstner from Austria built the first public railway in 1836, from St. Petersburg to Tsarskoe Selo. The introduction to the Moscow railways ultimately fueled the industrial revolution as river transportation became obsolete.
The plan to develop the Moscow ring railroad would soon later change the face of Moscow. Pre-Industrial Revolution Moscow in 1864 spanned 72.1 Sq/Km. Shortly after the Industrial Revolution, the city had grown to 212 Sq/Km by 1917. This was ultimately the doing of the completion of the Moscow Ring. Now a population of nearly 11 million lives in Moscow, all a result of a railway that boomed the Industrial Revolution.
Depiction of Moscow at the turn of the 17th Century under Empress Elizabeth Petronova