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Biology ISU

Teddy Dedels

on 19 January 2014

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Transcript of PINEAPPLE

THE PINEAPPLE Scientific name: Ananas comosus Explanation:

Ananas - modified from the aboriginal South American name for the plant, nana, meaning fragrance

comosus - with long hair, in reference to the silhouette of the plant Ananas comosus Pineapple - the edible, juicy, collective fruit of a tropical, bromeliaceous plant, Ananas comosus, that develops from a spike or head of flowers and is surmounted by a crown of leaves. HISTORY - The pineapple, though associated with Hawaii didn't actually originate there. Polynesians have been located in Hawaii for many years, however, the pineapples didn't arrive there until approximately 1813.

- A man named Don Francisco de Paula y Marin was the one who first brought the fruits there with him. Originally pineapples were found in Paraguay and Southern Brazil. Natives spread the fruit throughout South America and Central America and into the Caribbean region, including the West Indies, where Christopher Columbus first found them.

- The pineapple's original name was anana, which means "excellent fruit" in one of the Caribbean native languages. Europeans called it the "Pine of the Indies." Then, when the fruit traveled to English-speaking countries, the word "apple" was added.

- When Christopher Columbus first brought the pineapple back from Guadeloupe to Spain’s Queen Isabella in 1493, Europe had never seen anything like it. The English called it an apple because of its tasty fruits. So, the name pineapple comes from the combination of the Spanish “pina” with the English “apple”.

- It was carried on sailing ships around the world because it was found to help prevent scurvy, a devastating disease that often affected sailors on long voyages. It was at the end of one of these long voyages that the pineapple came to Hawaii to stay.

- On January 11, 1813, pineapples were first planted there.

- The familiar name of Dole came into the picture in 1901, when James Drummond Dole planted his first pineapples near Wahiawa. He also founded the Hawaiian Pineapple Company. The pineapple industry was off and running.

- The pineapple is the most famous and economically important member of the Pineapple family (Bromeliaceae). It is the only bromeliad with edible fruit. The family is mostly from the New World, with over 2000 species besides the pineapple native to the tropical Americas. One additional species is from Africa. By: Teddy Dedels SIZE And appearance SOIL and CLIMATic REquirements GEOgraphic distribution - - Pineapple plants are perennials growing from a thick crown close to the soil surface. They reach a height of 4 feet with multiple stiff 3-foot long leaves and some with sharp edges.

- The pineapple is herbaceous and grows from 1.0 to 1.5 meters tall.

- In appearance, the plant itself has a short, stocky stem with tough, waxy leaves.

- When pineapple makes fruit, it produces up to 200 flowers, although some large pineapples can exceed this. Once it flowers, the individual fruits of the flowers join together to create the pineapple.

- After the first fruit is produced, side shoots (suckers) are produced in the main stem. These may be removed for production of more plants, or left to produce more fruits on the starting plant.

- Commercially, suckers that appear around the base are cultivated. Suckers have 30 or more long, narrow, fleshy, trough-shaped leaves with sharp spines around a thick stem.

- In the first year of growth, the axis lengthens and thickens, bearing numerous leaves in close spirals. After 12 to 20 months, the stem grows into a spike-like inflorescence up to 15 cm (6 in) long with over 100 spirally arranged flowers, each subtended by a bract.

-Flower colors vary, depending on variety, from lavender, through light purple to red.

-The pineapple “fruit” is not really a fruit at all but is a mass of individual berries fused to the central stalk. This is why the “fruit” has leaves on top. They are actually the continued growth of the stalk beyond where the berries are attached. - The pineapple can be found in all tropical regions. Portuguese explorers carried it around the world in the 16th century. The Chinese were cultivating it by 1640, but it was only introduced to Hawaii in 1813.

- Hawaii started exporting canned pineapples in 1892 and James Dole started his plantation there in 1900. Southeast Asia dominates world production: in 2001, Thailand produced 1.979 million tons and the Philippines 1.618 million tons, while in the Americas Brazil produced 1.43 million tons. Total world production in 2001 was 14.220 million tons.

- The primary exporters of fresh pineapples in 2001 were Costa Rica, 322,000 tons and the Philippines, 135,000 tons. Since about 2000, the most common fresh pineapple fruit found in U.S. and European supermarkets is a low-acid hybrid that was developed in Hawaii in the early 1970s. growth habits - Pineapples are not grown from seed and the flowers are not capable of fertilizing their own eggs. Unless different cultivators are grown near each other (an unlikely occurrence in commercial plantations), the resulting fruits are seedless.

- Pineapples are readily reproduced using crowns, slips, or suckers. The crown is the shoot on top of the fruit, and new plants take 2 years to produce fruit.

- Slips are side shoots from just below the fruit. Plants from slips take 20 months to produce fruit.

- Suckers are side shoots that develop from the main stem at ground level, and take 17 months to produce fruit. Each plant produces one fruit at the top of its stem. This high quality fruit is called the “plant” crop. After the fruit is harvested, several suckers develop and one year later produce the second crop. The fruits are smaller and of lesser quality. Another crop can develop after that crop is harvested. After that, the field is dug up and replanted.

-Pineapple quality is at its best when the fruit matures on the plant. Pineapples won't become sweeter if harvested earlier, the sugar content must come from the rest of the plant.

- The practice of dropping a few grans of calcium carbide onto the growing point of pineapple plants is to alter hormones so that multiple crops would grow at once. Otherwise the field of pineapple can produce at random times.

- For best fruit quality the plant has specific environmental requirements such as mineral rich soil that is moist but well drained, low humidity, full sunlight, and temperatures that do not get below 32F or above 90oF.

- This environment can be found in many tropical countries, and the pineapple industry is significant in Thailand, the Philippines, United States (Hawaii), Mexico, South Africa, Malaysia, and other countries.

- Prior to 1950 Hawaii produced 70% of the world’s pineapples. Increasing production costs and foreign competition has reduced Hawaii’s market share to less than 30%. Still, Hawaii produces 500,000 tons of pineapples each year.

- Pollination is required for seed formation, however seeds negatively affect the quality of the fruit. In Hawaii, where pineapple hummingbirds are extremely important and illegal to harm for this reason. Bat pollinated wild pineapples that open their flowers at night also exist. useful products - Raw pineapple is an excellent source of manganese and vitamin C. In the stem, pineapple contains an enzyme, bromelain, which breaks down protein. With a large amount of bromelain content, pineapple juice may be used as a meat marinade and tenderizer.

- Bromelain also contains chemicals that in recent research may interfere with the growth of tumor cells and slow blood clotting.

- Both the root and fruit may be eaten or applied topically as an anti-inflammatory or as a proteolytic agent.

- In some practices, it may be used to induce abortion or menstruation or as an antihelminthic agent.

- The fruit and juice of pineapple are used in cuisines around the world. In many tropical countries, pineapple is made, and sold as a snack on streets. These can be sold whole, or in halves on a stick.

- Whole, cored slices with a cherry in the middle are a common garnish on hams in the West. Chunks of pineapple are not only used in desserts such as fruit salad, but also as a main ingredient in savory dishes, like as a pizza topping.

- Crushed pineapple is used in yogurt, jam, sweets, and ice cream. The juice of the pineapple is served as a beverage, and is also as a main ingredient in such cocktails as the Piña colada. Pineapple may be consumed fresh, canned, juiced, and are found in a wide array of food stuffs dessert, fruit salad, jam, yogurt, ice cream, candy, and as a complement to meat dishes.

- In addition to consumption, in the Philippines the pineapple's leaves are used as the source of a textile fiber called piña, and is employed as a component of wall paper and furnishings, amongst other uses. structure function - Eight ounces of pineapple juice contains as much as 75% of the daily recommended allowance of vitamin C. Vitamin C is important for increasing the body's natural resistance to disease. Vitamin C is also crucial in promoting cell growth and development, as well as tissue repair.

- Eight ounces of pineapple juice also contains roughly 20% of the daily recommended allowance of Potassium. Potassium is an important mineral that helps maintain proper kidney functions. It is also a natural electrolyte, which are essential components within your body that conduct electricity.


Digestive Aid
- Take care of your tummy after a heavy, protein-rich meal with bromelain enzymes. The University of Maryland's Medical Center advocates the use of bromelain in conjunction with other enzymes like amylase and lipase for assisting with digestion of meals.

Sinusitis Relief
- Add bromelain supplements to your regime when fighting sinus infections or allergy- induced sinus inflammation. According to the National Institutes of Health, studies show that bromelain can aid in bringing swelling down in the sinuses and improving breathing.

Pina Fabric
- A use for piña fabric is in the creation of formal wear in the Philippines. It is also used for other table linens, bags, mats and other clothing items. It is a lightweight, but stiff and sheer fabric and has multiple uses. Pineapple Leaves
- The leaves grow in a rosette and are produced in the first year. The leaves are long, waxy and pointed with sharp spines on the edges. They can be all green or green striped with yellow, red or ivory.

Stem or Stalk of a Pineapple
- A short stem or stalk grows in the second year in the center of the leaves. Up to 200 flowers are produced on the end of the stalk.

Pineapple Fruit
- The edible fruit is sweet and slightly acidic. It is a multiple fruit formed by the ripened ovaries of the flowers joining into one solid structure.

Pineapple Crown
- A group of leaves grows at the top of the inflorescence. This is the crown and it is used to propagate more plants.

- Another way pineapple plants are propagated is with slips. Slips are offshoots or suckers of the plant. Aerial suckers grow around the base of the fruit at ground level. Basal suckers grow from beneath the soil. Slips develop after the harvest of the first fruit. The second harvest is of several smaller fruits.

- Pineapples contain a secret health weapon in the form of an enzyme known as bromelain. This enzyme is designed to break down proteins during the digestive process.

Pina Cloth
- Piña is a fiber that is created with the leaves from a a pineapple. Sometimes pine is combined with silk or polyester to create a textile fabric. Since pina is from a leaf, the leaf has to be cut first from the plant. Next, the fiber is pulled or split away from the leaf. Each strand of the piña fiber is hand scraped and is knotted one by one to be handwoven and then made into a piña cloth. Chemical and Physical properties - Pineapples are 15% sugar along with malic and citric acids.

- Pineapples also contain bromelain, a protein digesting and milk-clotting enzyme that is very similar to pepsin. Bromelain accounts for the belief that pineapples are good for our digestion.

- Besides the flavor and delicious aroma, properties of the pineapple are some of the most important since it is known as one of the healthiest fruits. The content of Bromelain (an enzyme) makes pinapple very appropriate for circulation, since the component dissolves blood clots and thins the blood.

- On top of that, the anti-inflammatory properties make it useful to reduce pain.

- Pineapples grow slowly, and can take up to two years to reach full size. If they are left to reach full maturity they can weigh up to 20 pounds.

See structural slide for more physical properties of the pineapple. global significance Besides its use as a food, the pineapple fruit has a long history of symbolism that still exists today. When first cultivated in European greenhouses, it was used only by the wealthy to decorate banquet tables. It eventually became a status symbol of the socially elite. During the historic wars, English used the fruit to symbolize high living and great wealth. European explorers carried the pineapple symbol back to the Americas to represent “friendship” and an image of “welcome”. PINEapple timeline 1493 Christopher Columbus received pineapples when his Spanish fleet anchored off Guadeloupe, West Indies. 1813 Don Francisco de Paula y Marin, Spanish advisor to King Kamehameha I, introduces coffee and pineapple to Hawaii. 1882 John Ackerman and Waldemar Muller canned pineapple commercially in Kona. 1885 Captain John Kidwell is credited as being the pioneer of the pineapple industry in Hawaii. He began crop development trials in 1885 when he planted in Manoa, Oahu. 1890 Captain John Kidwell plants Smooth Cayenne pineapple near Pearl Harbour. Sold plants to Baldwin on Maui. 1892 Kidwell and John Emmeluth build pineapple cannery in Waipahu. 1897 150,000 pecks of pineapple exported at value of 14,000. 1898 Alfred W. Eames arrives in Hawaii as one of the original “California Homesteaders” to begin pineapple cultivation. Eames first starts selling fresh pineapple in the year 1900. His company eventually became Del Monte Fresh Produce (Hawaii) Inc. 1900 James Drummond Dole purchases 61 acres in Wahiawa and began experimenting with pineapple. 1901 James Drummond Dole incorporates the Hawaiian Pineapple Company and begins growing fruit on 60 acres in Wahiawa. 1905 Dole packs 125,000 cases
of pineapple. 1907 Dole moves pineapple cannery to Honolulu and places ads in U.S. magazines to promote pineapple. (This was one of the first nationwide consumer ad campaigns in America.) 1910-1914 Pineapple research carried on by pineapple companies and University of Hawaii. 1912 Hawaiian Pineapple Packers’ Association research station formed. Later became the Pineapple Research Institute. 1930 Nine million cases of pineapple packed
by eight canneries. 1933 Recognizing the popularity and significance of quality in James Dole's name, the company first stamps "DOLE" on cans of pineapple and pineapple juice. 1946 6,000 Filipino workers immigrated to Hawaii for jobs in sugar and pineapple. 1947 Newly organized unionized pineapple workers conduct their first labour strike. 1952 Frozen pineapple juice concentrate hits the shelves for the first time. 1955 Pineapple production peaks with 76,700 acres planted. 1961 Hawaiian pineapple growers supply over 80 of the world’s output of canned pineapple. 1966 Pineapple production begins to decline, steadily. 1974 About 6,000 pineapple workers on Oahu, Maui, and Lanai strike. 1983 Del Monte Corp. folds Hawaii pineapple canning operations. 1984 Del Monte opens a new Hawaiian pineapple juice concentrate processing plant in Kunia, Hawaii. 1986 The DOLE logo is redesigned. The bright yellow sunburst is chosen as research shows it signifies freshness, quality, wholesomeness and good tasting products. The DOLE brand enjoys 98 world wide recognition. 1991 Dole launches Dole 5 A Day Program to encourage young children and their families to eat five or more daily servings of fruits and vegetables. 1992 Dole Packaged Foods Co. closes Lanai plantation. 1995 Dole's global reach extends to more than 90 countries with a product line of over 170 fresh and packaged food products. INFLUENCES - Pineapple is known as a welcoming, delicious fruit throughout the world and is associated with paradise and tropical locations.

- Its influence on the quality of life is based on its connection to relaxing destinations.

- Economically, pineapple soars among the highest profit fruits across the globe, however, consequences arise from the over industry tied to its success.

- The environment is influenced by a complete over population of the pineapple fruit in places like Hawaii, where the farms take up large portions of land and destroy vegetation with harsh pesticides and chemicals. pineapple Taxonomy BIBLIOGRAPHY Nutrition Facts and Analysis for Pineapple, raw, all varieties . (n.d.). Nutrition facts, calories in food, labels, nutritional information and analysis – NutritionData.com . Retrieved November 27, 2012, from http://nutritiondata.self.com/facts/fruits-and-fruit-juices/2019/2

Diseases of Pineapple. (n.d.). Welcome to APSnet. Retrieved November 27, 2012, from http://www.apsnet.org/publications/com

History of the Pineapple. (n.d.). Homepage. Retrieved November 27, 2012, from http://www.dole-plantation.com/History-of-the-Pineapple

PLANTS Profile for Ananas comosus (pineapple) | USDA PLANTS. (n.d.). Welcome to the PLANTS Database | USDA PLANTS. Retrieved November 27, 2012, from http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ANCO30

Pineapple. (n.d.). Union County College Faculty Web Site. Retrieved November 27, 2012, from http://faculty.ucc.edu/biology-ombrello/pow/pineapple.htm

Pineapple | Define Pineapple at Dictionary.com. (n.d.). Dictionary.com | Find the Meanings and Definitions of Words at Dictionary.com. Retrieved November 27, 2012, from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/pineapple

Pineapples Arrive in Hawaii. (n.d.). Social Studies for Kids. Retrieved November 27, 2012, from http://www.socialstudiesforkids.com/articlescensus

t. 1. (n.d.). Colonial Cemetery - Slave Markers in Newport, RI. Splash. Retrieved November 27, 2012, from http://www.colonialcemetery.com/newporthistory

Polunin, M. (1999). Healing foods. New York: DK Pub.. COST RESearch - The cost of pineapple in the environment is a significant one. Last year in Costa Rica authorities detected significant amounts of Bromacil, a pesticide used to kill insects from pineapple plants, in the local water. Since then, the government has had to delivered water by truck to nearly 6,000 people.

- Socially, pineapple takes a large toll on citizens in countries that produce large portions of the world's pineapple supply. Many workers from the Phillipines have gone on strike multiple times due to the harsh conditions and hard labour involved with the extensive work. - The chemicals found in pineapple are currently being researched and tested for their positive impact on the human body.

- Bromelain being the most prominant of the chemicals that compose pineapple, has anti-inflammatory properties.

- Also, geneticists, are working to alter genetics within the pineapple, making them immune to common negative impacting insects. #1 What is the name of the digestive enzyme associated with pineapple? #2 Name one useful product of pineapple. #3 Name a location where pineapple is grown. #4 Name one part of the pineapple. 1.5 metres Unlike its relatives, the pineapple is terrestrial. It grows best in a mineral soil medium.

- Bromeliads typically grow on other plants and do not require a mineral soil but do best living on bark or tree branches.

- Pineapple grows best in areas where the temperature is mild (24oC to 30oC) and the same throughout the year.

- Pineapples grow best in areas where rainfall is between 1000 and 1500 mm per year and fairly even throughout the growing period.

- The ideal elevation for pineapple growth is from 150 to 240 meters above sea level. The production areas for pineapple are upland areas mostly planted to coconuts with an elevation ranging from 50 to 100 meters above sea level.

- Pineapples grow and produce where the soil is well drained and with pH range of 4.5 to 5.5. Major soil types are San Manuel clay loam, Alaminos clay, and Luisiana clay, found in valleys, hills and mountains.
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