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Transcript of Civil War
The Civil War
22. Northern Generals
21. Northern Strategy
And So It Begins...
Before the War
The Civil War was caused by: sectionalism
-divisions over slavery and the failure to compromise between the North and the South.
-Economic issues such as tariffs and using taxes to improve industry and trade, which seemed to favor the North.
-from the Southern point of view, to defend “ state’s rights.”Which is the belief that states have the power to reject national laws or secede (break away) if necessary.
-South Carolina (with 10 other states) seceding and forming the Confederate States of America.
1.The South wanted to return to a Confederacy (our first form of government) with the states having more power than the national government.
and sent ships south to
U.S. forts. In response, South Carolina attacked
on April 12, 1861.
14. The South chose
, Virginia as its
15. The Confederate States of America (
) was known as the “
” and its
.” They wore
16. The important Southern commanders were General
Robert E. Lee
20. The U.S.A. was known as the “
” and its soldiers the “
.” They wore
The important Northern commanders were Generals
Ulysses S. Grant
designed to smother the South's economy like a giant anaconda snake squeezes its prey.
A Civil War is a war between people
of the same country.
3. In Lincoln’s First Inaugural Address he tried to avoid war and calm tensions by stating, “We must not be enemies.” And “You can have no conflict without being yourselves the aggressors.”
believed he was the president of the
and it was his duty to keep the country
26.The Battle of Antietam
the Battle of
(Maryland) which was the
day of war. There were 23,000 casualties- (death or severe injuries).
29. Following the victory at
, Lincoln issued the “
”. (January 1, 1863)
To emancipate is to grant freedom. A proclamation is an announcement.
30. Emancipation Proclamation
-freed the slaves in the rebel states.
-Allowed slavery in the states that remained
loyal to the union
- Allowed blacks to
Members of the
54th Massachusetts Regiment
blacks to fight in the war.
The Battle of Gettysburg
Battle of Gettysburg
(Pennsylvania) was the “turning point” of the war.
lost and his army was greatly
. After the battle, Lincoln gave his famous speech- the
In his “Gettysburg Address” Lincoln talked about the vision of our country and how we “
” must continue to
A Fight for Freedom
34. March to Sea
General Sherman led the
destructive “March to the Sea
Burned and destroyed
everything in their path. After Sherman reached Savannah he headed toward
. He was especially
The Civil War
(1865) when the North won the Battle of
General Lee surrendered
to General Grant at
Appomattox Court House
Americans died during the Civil War.
37. General Lee Surrenders to General Grant
During the war, women kept the
going by working on the
farms and in the factories.
Some even served as
Most served as cooks and
for the armies including
the founder of the
American Red Cross
38.Women in the War
5. First 7 States to Secede (Deep South)
1. South Carolina
2. Warned that if Lincoln won the election of 1860 they would secede.
4. Even though, he said he would not abolish slavery in the Southern states, the South did not trust him.
Fort Sumter was in Charleston, South Carolina
informed South Carolina that he was going to send ships to
supply the fort
The Confederacy attacked the fort before the supply ships arrived.
The Confederacy shelled the fort for
Major Robert Anderson
No one was killed in this battle,
fell under the
until the end of the war.
Lincoln Calls Out for the Militia
militia to put down the uprising in the
Southern states were
and chose to
9. North Carolina
10. As each state seceded, volunteers rushed to enlist, just as citizens did in the North.
11. Because of their
the border states could
toward one side
12. These states
Lincoln arrested Maryland lawmakers who supported the South in order to keep it from seceding. It was important for us to hold on to Washington, D.C.
rivers: to provide an invasion route to the South
13.In the end
states made the
states made up the
-The Union had a huge advantage in
. N(22million) S(9million)
-85% of the nation's
were in the North.
-The North had more than double the
mileage of the South. WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT?
-Almost all the
and shipyards belonged to the North
President Lincoln was our greatest asset. He convinced Northerners that democracy depended on preserving the Union.
17. The Confederate Strategy
The Southern war strategy was to:
- make the war last as
wanted to prove to Europe that they could defeat the North
At first offensive then turned defensive
-The plan called for a
-The plan also called for the Union to gain
. This would
in two. (divide and conquer)
- Also to capture
(the C.S.A's capital.)
23. Battle of Bull Run (Battle of Manassas)
Lincoln orders an
of Virginia in the summer of 1861.
To take Richmond the Union army had to
the Confederate troops stationed at the town of
On July 21, 1861
forces under General Irvin
clashed with Confederate forces near a creek called Bull
GENERAL LEE WINS
General Jackson gets nicknamed General "
General McDowell FIRED
24. Lincoln gave George
command of the Union army in the East.
McClellan to attack Richmond, but he kept
25. General Grant gets victories in the West:
The Battle of Shiloh:
The Fall of New Orleans-
part of the
General Grant had many shortcomings
as a civilian, but as a General he was
a great strategist.
"Find out where your enemy is, get at him as soon as you can, strike at him as hard as you can, and keep moving on."
A Union soldier found General Lee's plans to invade the North.
used this chance to
, but as always he moved
. On Sept. 17, 1862, in Maryland, McClellan's and Lee's troops
Neither side gained much ground, but
lost 1/3 of his men forcing him
to retreat back to Virginia.
This was McClellan's chance to finish off the crippled Southern army...BUT he didn't!
General McClellAn is
33.Battle of Gettysburg Under General Meade
Replaced by General
Lincoln in the Battle of
and he was...
! 12,600 Union casualties
Lincoln in the Battle of
! General Lee had half the men General Hooker had, yet he still destroyed Union forces.
General Stonwall Jackson dies after accidentely being shot on May 2nd, shortly after his arm was amputated. Dies of pneumonia on May 10th.
90,000 Union troops v. 75,000 Confederate troops
- On the 3rd day, Confederate General Pickett led his men on a head on attack on Union troops. They were met with
heavy Union fire
and were torn to pieces.
and once AGAIN Union General Meade
once and for all.
33. The Siege of Vicksburg
on July 4th, 1863 at the Battle of Vicksburg
the city and waited for the Confederates to run out of
food and supplies.
after a month. (they had ate mules, dogs and even rats!)
Union victory fulfilled a
They now had
full control of the
. Now the South
was split in two.
35. 1864 Lincoln runs for President for the
Mclellan runs against him and loses.
Lincoln won with 55% of the popular vote.
36. In his
Second Inaugural Address
he hoped for a speedy end to the war:
towards none; with
for all;...let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation's wounds..."
The South grew most of the cotton for European textile mills. When the war broke out, the South withheld cotton from the market. They had hoped to force France & Britain to aid the confederate cause. But this backfired because in 1861 Europe actually had a surplus of cotton-they didn't want to get involved in an American war.