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Transcript of Civil War
The Civil War was caused by: sectionalism
-divisions over slavery and the failure to compromise between the North and the South.
-Economic issues such as tariffs and using taxes to improve industry and trade, which seemed to favor the North.
-from the Southern point of view, to defend “ state’s rights.”Which is the belief that states have the power to reject national laws or secede (break away) if necessary.
-South Carolina (with 10 other states) seceding and forming the Confederate States of America. 1.The South wanted to return to a Confederacy (our first form of government) with the states having more power than the national government. 6. The Civil War began after Lincoln was inaugurated and sent ships south to protect U.S. forts. In response, South Carolina attacked Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861. 14. The South chose Richmond, Virginia as its capital and Jefferson Davis as its president.
15. The Confederate States of America (C.S.A.) was known as the “Confederacy” and its soldiers the “Rebels.” They wore gray uniforms. 16. The important Southern commanders were General Robert E. Lee and General “Stonewall” Jackson. 20. The U.S.A. was known as the “Union” and its soldiers the “Yankees.” They wore blue uniforms. The important Northern commanders were Generals Ulysses S. Grant and General Sherman. Anaconda Plan: designed to smother the South's economy like a giant anaconda snake squeezes its prey. A Civil War is a war between people
of the same country. 3. In Lincoln’s First Inaugural Address he tried to avoid war and calm tensions by stating, “We must not be enemies.” And “You can have no conflict without being yourselves the aggressors.” 18. President Lincoln believed he was the president of the North and the South and it was his duty to keep the country united. 26.The Battle of Antietam The North won the Battle of Antietam (Maryland) which was the bloodiest day of war. There were 23,000 casualties- (death or severe injuries). 29. Following the victory at Antietam, Lincoln issued the “Emancipation Proclamation”. (January 1, 1863)
-only freed slaves in Confederate territories-
To emancipate is to grant freedom. A proclamation is an announcement. 30. Emancipation Proclamation
-freed the slaves in the rebel states.
-Allowed slavery in the states that remained
loyal to the union
- Allowed blacks to join the Union Army.
Members of the 54th Massachusetts Regiment
were the first blacks to fight in the war. The Battle of Gettysburg 31. The Battle of Gettysburg (Pennsylvania) was the “turning point” of the war. General Lee lost and his army was greatly weakened. After the battle, Lincoln gave his famous speech- the
In his “Gettysburg Address” Lincoln talked about the vision of our country and how we “the people” must continue to fight for equality. A Fight for Freedom 34. March to Sea
General Sherman led the destructive “March to the Sea” from Atlanta to Savanna Georgia. Burned and destroyed everything in their path. After Sherman reached Savannah he headed toward South Carolina. He was especially brutal there...WHY? The Civil War ended (1865) when the North won the Battle of Richmond and
General Lee surrendered to General Grant at Appomattox Court House.
Over 60,000 Americans died during the Civil War. 37. General Lee Surrenders to General Grant During the war, women kept the economy going by working on the
farms and in the factories.
Some even served as spies.
Most served as cooks and nurses for the armies including
Clara Barton the founder of the American Red Cross. 38.Women in the War 5. First 7 States to Secede (Deep South) 1. South Carolina
7. Texas 2. Warned that if Lincoln won the election of 1860 they would secede. 4. Even though, he said he would not abolish slavery in the Southern states, the South did not trust him. Fort Sumter was in Charleston, South Carolina 7. Lincoln informed South Carolina that he was going to send ships to supply the fort.
The Confederacy attacked the fort before the supply ships arrived.
The Confederacy shelled the fort for 34hrs.
Major Robert Anderson surrendered.
No one was killed in this battle, but the fort fell under the control of the Confederacy until the end of the war. Lincoln Calls Out for the Militia 8. The Union states provided 75,000 militia to put down the uprising in the South. 9.The upper Southern states were angry and chose to secede and join the Confederacy. 8. Virginia
9. North Carolina
11. Arkansas 10. As each state seceded, volunteers rushed to enlist, just as citizens did in the North. Border States 11. Because of their location the border states could tip the scale toward one side. Delaware
West Virginia 12. These states join the Union :) Lincoln arrested Maryland lawmakers who supported the South in order to keep it from seceding. It was important for us to hold on to Washington, D.C. rivers: to provide an invasion route to the South 13.In the end 24 states made the Union and 11 states made up the Confederacy -The Union had a huge advantage in manpower and resources. N(22million) S(9million)
-85% of the nation's factories were in the North.
-The North had more than double the railroad mileage of the South. WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT?
-Almost all the naval power and shipyards belonged to the North 19. Advantages President Lincoln was our greatest asset. He convinced Northerners that democracy depended on preserving the Union. 17. The Confederate Strategy The Southern war strategy was to:
- make the war last as long as possible
-to win a big battle in the North-
wanted to prove to Europe that they could defeat the North At first offensive then turned defensive -The plan called for a naval blockade
-The plan also called for the Union to gain control of the Mississippi River. This would split the Confederacy in two. (divide and conquer)
- Also to capture Richmond (the C.S.A's capital.) 23. Battle of Bull Run (Battle of Manassas) Lincoln orders an invasion of Virginia in the summer of 1861. To take Richmond the Union army had to defeat the Confederate troops stationed at the town of Manassas, Virginia On July 21, 1861 Union forces under General Irvin McDowell clashed with Confederate forces near a creek called Bull Run. Confederate troops Union troops flanking maneuver GENERAL LEE WINS!!! General Jackson gets nicknamed General "Stonewall" Jackson Confederates (Stonewaill) General McDowell FIRED 24. Lincoln gave George McClellan command of the Union army in the East. Lincoln wanted General McClellan to attack Richmond, but he kept drilling his troops. 25. General Grant gets victories in the West:
The Battle of Shiloh: control of upper part
of Mississippi River.
The Fall of New Orleans- control of the
lower part of the Mississippi River. General Grant had many shortcomings
as a civilian, but as a General he was
a great strategist. "Find out where your enemy is, get at him as soon as you can, strike at him as hard as you can, and keep moving on." A Union soldier found General Lee's plans to invade the North. McClellan used this chance to stop Lee's army, but as always he moved slowly. On Sept. 17, 1862, in Maryland, McClellan's and Lee's troops clashed. Neither side gained much ground, but Lee lost 1/3 of his men forcing him to retreat back to Virginia. This was McClellan's chance to finish off the crippled Southern army...BUT he didn't! General McClellAn is FIRED! 33.Battle of Gettysburg Under General Meade Meade loses 17,000 men
Lee loses 22,000 men Replaced by General Burnside 27.General Burnside disappointed Lincoln in the Battle of Fredericksburg and he was...FIRED! 12,600 Union casualties 28.General Hooker is then hired. General Hooker disappoints Lincoln in the Battle of Chancellorsville. and is fired! General Lee had half the men General Hooker had, yet he still destroyed Union forces. General Stonwall Jackson dies after accidentely being shot on May 2nd, shortly after his arm was amputated. Dies of pneumonia on May 10th. 90,000 Union troops v. 75,000 Confederate troops Pickett's Charge- On the 3rd day, Confederate General Pickett led his men on a head on attack on Union troops. They were met with heavy Union fire and were torn to pieces. The Confederates retreated and once AGAIN Union General Meade failed to finish General Lee once and for all. General Meade is FIRED! 33. The Siege of Vicksburg General Grant defeated Confederate troops on July 4th, 1863 at the Battle of Vicksburg Grant surrounded the city and waited for the Confederates to run out of food and supplies. They surrendered after a month. (they had ate mules, dogs and even rats!) The Union victory fulfilled a major part
of the Anaconda Plan.
They now had full control of the
Mississippi River. Now the South
was split in two. Sherman's TOTAL WAR 35. 1864 Lincoln runs for President for the 2nd time Mclellan runs against him and loses.
Lincoln won with 55% of the popular vote. 36. In his Second Inaugural Address he hoped for a speedy end to the war:
"With malice towards none; with charity for all;...let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation's wounds..." The South grew most of the cotton for European textile mills. When the war broke out, the South withheld cotton from the market. They had hoped to force France & Britain to aid the confederate cause. But this backfired because in 1861 Europe actually had a surplus of cotton-they didn't want to get involved in an American war.