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Civil War

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Rose Martinez

on 19 April 2018

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Transcript of Civil War

Civil War
1861-1865
The Civil War
The Union
The North
Northern Generals
Northern Strategy
The Confederacy
And So It Begins...
Lincoln
The South
Before the War
The Civil War was caused by:

S
ectionalism
Divisions
over
slavery
and the failure to compromise between the
North
and the
South
.

Economic issues-
Tariffs
and using taxes to improve
industry
and trade, which seemed to
favor
the
North
.

-The

South believed they had to defend their
“state’s rights.
” Which is the belief that states have the power to
reject
national laws or
secede
(break away) if necessary.

Lincoln’s election
-South Carolina (with 10 other states) seceded and formed the
Confederate States of America
.
The South wanted to return to a Confederacy (our first form of government) with the
states
having
more power
than the national government.
The
Civil War
began after
Lincoln
was
inaugurated
and sent ships south to
protect
U.S. forts. In response, South Carolina attacked
Fort Sumter
on April 12, 1861.
The
South
chose Richmond, Virginia as its capital and
Jefferson Davis
as its
president
.
The Confederate States of America (C.S.A.) was known as the “
Confederacy
” and its soldiers the “
Rebels
.” They wore
gray
uniforms.
The important Southern commanders were General
Robert E. Lee
and General
“Stonewall” Jackson.
The U.S.A. was known as the “
Union
” and its soldiers the “
Yankees
.” They wore
blue
uniforms.
The important Northern commanders were Generals
Ulysses S. Grant
and General
Sherman
.
Anaconda Plan:
designed to smother the South's economy like a giant anaconda snake squeezes its prey.
A
Civil War
is a war between people
of the
same
country.
In Lincoln’s First Inaugural Address he tried to avoid war and calm tensions by stating, “We must not be enemies.” And “You can have no conflict without being yourselves the aggressors.”
President
Lincoln
believed he was the president of the
North
and the
South
and it was his duty to keep the country
united
.
The Battle of Antietam
The
North won
the Battle of
Antietam
(Maryland) which was the
bloodiest
day of war. There were 23,000 casualties- (death or severe injuries).
Following the victory at
Antietam
, Lincoln issued the “
Emancipation Proclamation
”. (January 1, 1863)
-only freed slaves in Confederate territories-
To emancipate is to grant freedom. A proclamation is an announcement.
Emancipation Proclamation

freed the slaves in the rebel states.
Allowed slavery in the states that remained
loyal to the
union.
Allowed blacks to
join
the Union Army.
Members of the
54th Massachusetts Regiment

were the
first
blacks to fight in the war.
The Battle of Gettysburg
The
Battle of Gettysburg
(Pennsylvania) was the “turning point” of the war.
General Lee
lost and his army was greatly
weakened
. After the battle, Lincoln gave his famous speech- the

Gettysburg Address










In his “Gettysburg Address” Lincoln talked about the vision of our country and how we “
the people
” must continue to
fight
for
equality.
A Fight for Freedom
March to Sea

General Sherman led the destructiv
e “March to the Sea
” from
Atlanta
to
Savanna
Georgia. Burned and destroyed everything in their path. After Sherman reached Savannah he headed toward
South Carolina
. He was especially
brutal
there...WHY?
The Civil War
ended
(1865) when the North won the Battle of Richmond and
General Lee surrendered
to General Grant at Appomattox Court House.
Over 60,000 Americans died during the Civil War.
General Lee Surrenders to General Grant
During the war, women kept the
economy
going by working on the
farms and in the factories.
Some even served as
spies
.

Most served as cooks and
nurses
for the armies including
Clara Barton
the founder of the
American Red Cross
.
Women in the War
First 7 States to Secede (Deep South)
1. South Carolina
2. Mississippi
3. Florida
4. Alabama
5. Georgia
6. Louisiana
7. Texas
Warned that if
Lincoln won
the election of 1860 they would
secede
.
Even though, he said he would not abolish slavery in the Southern states, the South did not trust him.
Fort Sumter was in Charleston, South Carolina
Lincoln
informed South Carolina that he was going to send ships to
supply the fort
.

The Confederacy attacked the fort before the supply ships arrived.

The Confederacy shelled the fort for
34hrs
.

Major Robert Anderson
surrendered
.

No one was killed in this battle,
but the
fort
fell under the
control
of the
Confederacy
until the end of the war.
Lincoln Calls Out for the Militia
The
Union
states provided
75,000
militia to put down the uprising in the
South
.
The upper Southern states were angry and chose to secede and join the Confederacy.
8. Virginia
9. North Carolina
10. Tennessee
11. Arkansas
As each state seceded, volunteers rushed to enlist, just as citizens did in the North.
Border States
Because of their
location
the border states could
tip
the scale
toward one side
.
Delaware
Maryland
Kentucky
Missouri
West Virginia
These states
join
the
Union
:)
Lincoln arrested Maryland lawmakers who supported the South in order to keep it from seceding. It was important for us to hold on to Washington, D.C.
rivers: to provide an invasion route to the South
13.In the end
24
states made the
Union
and
11
states made up the
Confederacy
-The Union had a huge advantage in
manpower
and
resources
. N(22million) S(9million)

-85% of the nation's
factories
were in the North.

-The North had more than double the
railroad
mileage of the South. WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT?

-Almost all of the
naval power
and shipyards belonged to the North
Advantages
President Lincoln was our greatest asset. He convinced Northerners that democracy depended on preserving the Union.
The Confederate Strategy
The Southern war strategy was to:

- make the war last as
long
as possible
-to
win
a big
battle
in the
North-
wanted to prove to Europe that they could defeat the North
At first offensive then turned defensive
The plan called for a
naval blockade
The plan also called for the Union to gain
control
of the
Mississippi River
. This would
split
the
Confederacy
in two. (divide and conquer)
Also to capture
Richmond
(the C.S.A's capital.)
Battle of Bull Run (Battle of Manassas)
Lincoln orders an
invasion
of Virginia in the summer of 1861.
To take Richmond the Union army had to
defeat
the Confederate troops stationed at the town of
Manassas, Virginia
On July 21, 1861 Union forces under General Irvin McDowell clashed with Confederate forces near a creek called Bull Run.
Confederate troops
Union troops
flanking maneuver
GENERAL LEE WINS!!!
General Jackson gets nicknamed General "Stonewall" Jackson
Confederates (Stonewall)
General McDowell FIRED
Lincoln gave George McClellan command of the Union army in the East.
Lincoln wanted General McClellan to attack Richmond, but he kept drilling his troops.
General Grant gets victories in the West:

The Battle of Shiloh:
control
of
upper
part
of
Mississippi River
.

The Fall of New Orleans- control of the
lower part of the Mississippi River.
General Grant had many shortcomings
as a civilian, but as a General he was
a great strategist.
"Find out where your enemy is, get at him as soon as you can, strike at him as hard as you can, and keep moving on."
A Union soldier found General Lee's plans to invade the North.
McClellan
used this chance to
stop
Lee's
army
, but as always he moved
slowly
. On Sept. 17, 1862, in Maryland, McClellan's and Lee's troops
clashed
.
Neither side gained much ground, but Lee lost 1/3 of his men forcing him to retreat back to Virginia. This was McClellan's chance to finish off the crippled Southern army...BUT he didn't!
General McClellAn is FIRED!
Battle of Gettysburg Under General Meade
Meade loses
17,000
men
Lee loses
22,000
men
Replaced by General Burnside
General Burnside
disappointed
Lincoln in the Battle of
Fredericksburg
and he was...
FIRED
! 12,600 Union casualties
General Hooker is then hired.
General Hooker disappoints Lincoln in the Battle of Chancellorsville. and is fired! General Lee had half the men General Hooker had, yet he still destroyed Union forces.
General Stonwall Jackson dies after accidentely being shot on May 2nd, shortly after his arm was amputated. Dies of pneumonia on May 10th.
90,000 Union troops v. 75,000 Confederate troops
Pickett's Charge
- On the 3rd day, Confederate General Pickett led his men on a head on attack on Union troops. They were met with
heavy Union fire
and were torn to pieces.
The Confederates
retreated
and once AGAIN Union General Meade
failed
to
finish
General
Lee
once and for all.
General Meade is FIRED!
The Siege of Vicksburg
General Grant
defeated
Confederate
troops
on July 4th, 1863 at the Battle of Vicksburg
Grant surrounded the city and waited for the Confederates to run out of food and supplies. They surrendered after a month. (they had ate mules, dogs and even rats!)
The Union victory fulfilled a major part
of the Anaconda Plan.
They now had full control of the
Mississippi River. Now the South
was split in two.
Sherman's
TOTAL WAR
1864 Lincoln runs for President for the
2nd
time
Mclellan runs against him and loses.

Lincoln won with 55% of the popular vote.
In his Second Inaugural Address he hoped for a speedy end to the war:
"With
malice
towards none; with
charity
for all;...let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation's wounds..."
The South grew most of the cotton for European textile mills. When the war broke out, the South withheld cotton from the market. They had hoped to force France & Britain to aid the confederate cause. But this backfired because in 1861 Europe actually had a surplus of cotton-they didn't want to get involved in an American war.
Full transcript