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Civil War

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Rose Martinez

on 14 March 2017

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Transcript of Civil War

Civil War
1861-1865
The Civil War
The Union
The North
22. Northern Generals
21. Northern Strategy
The Confederacy
And So It Begins...
Lincoln
The South
Before the War

The Civil War was caused by: sectionalism
-divisions over slavery and the failure to compromise between the North and the South.

-Economic issues such as tariffs and using taxes to improve industry and trade, which seemed to favor the North.

-from the Southern point of view, to defend “ state’s rights.”Which is the belief that states have the power to reject national laws or secede (break away) if necessary.

-Lincoln’s election

-South Carolina (with 10 other states) seceding and forming the Confederate States of America.
1.The South wanted to return to a Confederacy (our first form of government) with the states having more power than the national government.
6. The
Civil War
began after
Lincoln
was
inaugurated
and sent ships south to
protect
U.S. forts. In response, South Carolina attacked
Fort Sumter
on April 12, 1861.
14. The South chose
Richmond
, Virginia as its
capital
and
Jefferson Davis
as its
president
.

15. The Confederate States of America (
C.S.A.
) was known as the “
Confederacy
” and its
soldiers
the “
Rebels
.” They wore
gray
uniforms.
16. The important Southern commanders were General
Robert E. Lee
and General
“Stonewall” Jackson.
20. The U.S.A. was known as the “
Union
” and its soldiers the “
Yankees
.” They wore
blue
uniforms.
The important Northern commanders were Generals
Ulysses S. Grant
and General
Sherman
.
Anaconda Plan:
designed to smother the South's economy like a giant anaconda snake squeezes its prey.
A Civil War is a war between people
of the same country.
3. In Lincoln’s First Inaugural Address he tried to avoid war and calm tensions by stating, “We must not be enemies.” And “You can have no conflict without being yourselves the aggressors.”
18. President
Lincoln
believed he was the president of the
North
and the
South
and it was his duty to keep the country
united
.
26.The Battle of Antietam
The
North won
the Battle of
Antietam
(Maryland) which was the
bloodiest
day of war. There were 23,000 casualties- (death or severe injuries).
29. Following the victory at
Antietam
, Lincoln issued the “
Emancipation Proclamation
”. (January 1, 1863)
-only
freed slaves
in
Confederate
territories-
To emancipate is to grant freedom. A proclamation is an announcement.
30. Emancipation Proclamation

-freed the slaves in the rebel states.
-Allowed slavery in the states that remained
loyal to the union
- Allowed blacks to
join
the
Union Army
.
Members of the
54th Massachusetts Regiment

were the
first
blacks to fight in the war.
The Battle of Gettysburg
31. The
Battle of Gettysburg
(Pennsylvania) was the “turning point” of the war.
General Lee
lost and his army was greatly
weakened
. After the battle, Lincoln gave his famous speech- the

Gettysburg Address










In his “Gettysburg Address” Lincoln talked about the vision of our country and how we “
the people
” must continue to
fight
for
equality.
A Fight for Freedom
34. March to Sea

General Sherman led the
destructive “March to the Sea
” from
Atlanta
to
Savanna
Georgia.
Burned and destroyed
everything in their path. After Sherman reached Savannah he headed toward
South Carolina
. He was especially
brutal
there...WHY?
The Civil War
ended
(1865) when the North won the Battle of
Richmond
and
General Lee surrendered
to General Grant at
Appomattox Court House
.
Over
60,000
Americans died during the Civil War.
37. General Lee Surrenders to General Grant
During the war, women kept the
economy
going by working on the
farms and in the factories.
Some even served as
spies
.

Most served as cooks and
nurses
for the armies including
Clara Barton
the founder of the
American Red Cross
.
38.Women in the War
5. First 7 States to Secede (Deep South)
1. South Carolina
2. Mississippi
3. Florida
4. Alabama
5. Georgia
6. Louisiana
7. Texas
2. Warned that if Lincoln won the election of 1860 they would secede.
4. Even though, he said he would not abolish slavery in the Southern states, the South did not trust him.
Fort Sumter was in Charleston, South Carolina
7.
Lincoln
informed South Carolina that he was going to send ships to
supply the fort
.

The Confederacy attacked the fort before the supply ships arrived.

The Confederacy shelled the fort for
34hrs
.

Major Robert Anderson
surrendered
.

No one was killed in this battle,
but the
fort
fell under the
control
of the
Confederacy
until the end of the war.
Lincoln Calls Out for the Militia
8. The
Union
states provided
75,000
militia to put down the uprising in the
South
.
9.The
upper
Southern states were
angry
and chose to
secede
and
join
the
Confederacy
.
8. Virginia
9. North Carolina
10. Tennessee
11. Arkansas
10. As each state seceded, volunteers rushed to enlist, just as citizens did in the North.
Border States
11. Because of their
location
the border states could
tip
the scale
toward one side
.
Delaware
Maryland
Kentucky
Missouri
West Virginia
12. These states
join
the
Union
:)
Lincoln arrested Maryland lawmakers who supported the South in order to keep it from seceding. It was important for us to hold on to Washington, D.C.
rivers: to provide an invasion route to the South
13.In the end
24
states made the
Union
and
11
states made up the
Confederacy
-The Union had a huge advantage in
manpower
and
resources
. N(22million) S(9million)

-85% of the nation's
factories
were in the North.

-The North had more than double the
railroad
mileage of the South. WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT?

-Almost all the
naval power
and shipyards belonged to the North
19. Advantages
President Lincoln was our greatest asset. He convinced Northerners that democracy depended on preserving the Union.
17. The Confederate Strategy
The Southern war strategy was to:

- make the war last as
long
as possible
-to
win
a big
battle
in the
North-
wanted to prove to Europe that they could defeat the North
At first offensive then turned defensive
-The plan called for a
naval blockade
-The plan also called for the Union to gain
control
of the
Mississippi River
. This would
split
the
Confederacy
in two. (divide and conquer)
- Also to capture
Richmond
(the C.S.A's capital.)
23. Battle of Bull Run (Battle of Manassas)
Lincoln orders an
invasion
of Virginia in the summer of 1861.
To take Richmond the Union army had to
defeat
the Confederate troops stationed at the town of
Manassas, Virginia
On July 21, 1861
Union
forces under General Irvin
McDowell
clashed with Confederate forces near a creek called Bull
Run
.
Confederate troops
Union troops
flanking maneuver
GENERAL LEE WINS
!!!
General Jackson gets nicknamed General "
Stonewall
" Jackson
Confederates (Stonewaill)
General McDowell FIRED
24. Lincoln gave George
McClellan
command of the Union army in the East.
Lincoln
wanted
General
McClellan to attack Richmond, but he kept
drilling
his troops.
25. General Grant gets victories in the West:

The Battle of Shiloh:
control
of
upper
part
of
Mississippi River
.

The Fall of New Orleans-
control
of the
lower
part of the
Mississippi River.
General Grant had many shortcomings
as a civilian, but as a General he was
a great strategist.
"Find out where your enemy is, get at him as soon as you can, strike at him as hard as you can, and keep moving on."
A Union soldier found General Lee's plans to invade the North.
McClellan
used this chance to
stop
Lee's
army
, but as always he moved
slowly
. On Sept. 17, 1862, in Maryland, McClellan's and Lee's troops
clashed
.
Neither side gained much ground, but
Lee
lost 1/3 of his men forcing him
to retreat back to Virginia.
This was McClellan's chance to finish off the crippled Southern army...BUT he didn't!
General McClellAn is
FIRED!
33.Battle of Gettysburg Under General Meade
Meade loses
17,000
men
Lee loses
22,000
men
Replaced by General
Burnside
27.General Burnside
disappointed
Lincoln in the Battle of
Fredericksburg
and he was...
FIRED
! 12,600 Union casualties
28.General
Hooker
is then
hired
.
General Hooker
disappoints
Lincoln in the Battle of
Chancellorsville.
and is
fired
! General Lee had half the men General Hooker had, yet he still destroyed Union forces.
General Stonwall Jackson dies after accidentely being shot on May 2nd, shortly after his arm was amputated. Dies of pneumonia on May 10th.
90,000 Union troops v. 75,000 Confederate troops
Pickett's Charge
- On the 3rd day, Confederate General Pickett led his men on a head on attack on Union troops. They were met with
heavy Union fire
and were torn to pieces.
The Confederates
retreated
and once AGAIN Union General Meade
failed
to
finish
General
Lee
once and for all.
General
Meade
is
FIRED
!
33. The Siege of Vicksburg
General Grant
defeated
Confederate
troops
on July 4th, 1863 at the Battle of Vicksburg
Grant
surrounded
the city and waited for the Confederates to run out of
food and supplies.
They
surrendered
after a month. (they had ate mules, dogs and even rats!)
The
Union victory fulfilled a
major part
of the
Anaconda
Plan.
They now had
full control of the
Mississippi River
. Now the South
was split in two.
Sherman's
TOTAL WAR
35. 1864 Lincoln runs for President for the
2nd
time
Mclellan runs against him and loses.

Lincoln won with 55% of the popular vote.
36. In his
Second Inaugural Address
he hoped for a speedy end to the war:
"With
malice
towards none; with
charity
for all;...let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation's wounds..."
The South grew most of the cotton for European textile mills. When the war broke out, the South withheld cotton from the market. They had hoped to force France & Britain to aid the confederate cause. But this backfired because in 1861 Europe actually had a surplus of cotton-they didn't want to get involved in an American war.
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