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Meaning and Essential Concepts of Special Education
Transcript of Meaning and Essential Concepts of Special Education
2. annual goals describing the educational performance to be achieved by the end of each school year
3. short-term instructional objectives presented in measurable, intermediate steps between the present level of educational performance and the annual goals
4. specific educational services needed by the learner
5. transition services from age 16 or before the student leaves the school setting
What is Special Education?
Individually planned, systematically implemented and carefully evaluated instruction to help exceptional children achieve the greatest possible personal self sufficiency and success in present and future environment.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)requires all Individualized Educational Plans (IEP) to include the following statements:
and evaluated instruction
Each type of CSN needs particular educational services, curriculum goals, competencies and skills, educational approaches, strategies and procedures in the evaluation of learning and skills.
An important goal of special education is to help the child become independent from the assistance of adults in personal maintenance and development, homemaking, community life, vocational and leisure activities and travel.
Four points of view about
1. SPED is a legislatively governed enterprise.
2. SPED is a part of the country's educational system.
3. SPED is teaching CSN in the LRE.
4. SPED is purposeful intervention.
Types of Intervention
1. Preventive: keep potential and prevent minor
problem from becoming a disability
2. Primary: eliminate risk factors
3. Secondary: reducing the effects of risk factors
4. Tertiary: minimizing the impact of disability
5. Remedial: eliminate the effect of a disability
Basic Terms in Special Education
severe, chronic disability of a child five years of age or older that is:
attributable to a mental or physical impairment or a combination of both
manifested before the person attains age 22
likely to continue indefinitely
results in substantial functional limitations in three or more of the areas of major life activities such as self-care, language, learning, mobility, self-direction, capacity for independent living and economic self sufficiency
refers to the person's need for a combination and sequence of special care, treatment or other services that are lifelong or of extended duration and are individually planned and coordinated. (BeirneSmith, 2002)
Impairment or disability (can be used interchangeably):
reduced function or loss of a specific part of the body or organ.
e.g. blindness, low vision, deafness or hard of hearing
is a problem a person with disability or impairment encounters when interacting with people, events and the physical aspects of the environment.
a child with low vision cannot read the regular print of a textbook
a child who is hard of hearing cannot hear regular conversation
a child with physical disability cannot walk normally
* a disability may pose a handicap in one environment but not in another
refers to children who have greater chances than other children to develop a disability.
Categories of children at risk
children with established risk
are those with conditions that started during pregnancy
children with biological risk
are those who are born prematurely, underweight at birth, whose mother contracted diabetes or rubella during the first trimester of pregnancy, or who had bacterial infections like meningitis and HIV.
children with environmental risk
are children from extreme poverty, child abuse, absence of adequate shelter and medical care, parental substance abuse, limited opportunities for nurturance and social stimulation.
Is it correct to use disability category labels?
Perspective #1: the use of labels calls attention to the disability and overlooks the more important and positive characteristics of the person.
Perspective #2: it is necessary to use workable disability labels in order to describe the exceptional learning needs for a systematic provision of special education services.
Pros and Possible Benefits of Labeling:
categories can relate diagnosis to specific types of education and treatment
may lead to "protective" responses where regular children are more accepting of the atypical behavior
helps professionals communicate with one another
enables disability-specific advocacy groups to promote and spur legislative action
makes special needs more visible to the public
focuses on what individuals cannot do
may cause others to hold low expectations from CSN
labels that describe performance deficits are mistakenly used as explanatory constructs
suggests that problems arises from within the child
leads peers to reject and ridicule the child
child may develop poor self concept
provide a basis for keeping CSN out of regular class
Possible Disadvantages of Labeling:
Inciong, T. et.al. (2010).Introduction to Special Education: A Textbook for College Students. Manila City: Rex Bookstore
Meaning and Essential Concepts of Special Education