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Chapter 4 Section 2
Transcript of Chapter 4 Section 2
suggested that electrons travel around the
nucleus in waves, like that of frequency. Diffraction Electrons, like light waves, can be bent, or diffracted.
Diffraction refers to the bending of a wave as it passes by the edge of an object or through a small opening. Interference Electron beams, like waves, can interfere with each other.
Interference occurs when waves overlap. German physicist,
proposed that any attempt
to locate a specific electron
with a photon knocks
the electron off its course. The Heisenberg uncertainty principle states that it is impossible to determine simultaneously both the position and velocity of an electron or any other particle. Erwin Schrödinger In 1926, Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger developed an equation that treated electrons in atoms as waves. Together with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, the Schrödinger wave equation laid the foundation for modern quantum theory. The Quantum Theory Quantum theory describes mathematically the wave properties of electrons and other very small particles. Orbital An orbital is a three-dimensional region around the nucleus that indicates the probable location of an electron Quantum Numbers Quantum numbers specify the properties of atomic orbitals and the properties of electrons in orbitals. The Principle Quantum Number The principal quantum number, symbolized by n, indicates the main energy level occupied by the electron. The Angular Momentum Quantum Number The angular momentum quantum number, symbolized by l, indicates the shape of the orbital. The Magnetic Quantum Number The Magnetic Quantum Number, symbolized by m, indicates the orientation of an orbital around the nucleus. The Spin Quantum Number The spin quantum number has only two possible values, (+1/2, -1/2) which indicate the two fundamental spin states of an electron in an orbital.