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The Tree Of Life

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Marley Finan

on 11 January 2013

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Transcript of The Tree Of Life

The Tree Of Life Fungi Club Fungi
(Basidiomycotes) Zygospore Fungi
(Zygomycotes) Other Specie Examples Rhizopus stolonifer Mucor Tremellales Amanita verna Phallaceae Uredinales Penicillium Pezizaceae Truffle Sac Fungi (Ascomycotes) This group is very important to the human race. It produces penicillin, which is used to kill or stop bad bacteria from growing in the body. There are supposedly approximately 300 species in the Penicillium group. These fungi are found in moderate or cool temperatures, or wherever there is organic material for them to live off of. Mostly known to be used in the culinary use: Italian, Spanish, Greek, etc...
Usually found in places that are closely surrounded by trees
Truffle comes from the Latin word "tuber", which simply means a lump or swelling. This describes the truffles shape, since it just looks like a lump This group of fungi is known for its cup-like structure. Its most commonly known name is the Cup Fungi. Depending on its colour, and where it is located, this shows the first sign of spring. Also known as "Rusts"
Approximately 7800 different species
Affects many things such as fruits, stems, seeds and some leaves
Become apparent in the spring / early summer and it forms in an orange or brown shade of colour
Produce asexual spores dispercing by wind, causing and spreading its infection This fungi species is a very poisonous and deadly type. It comes from the family of the Gill Fungi, which belongs to the Club phyla. This species contains the annulus and also the volva. You can find fungus like these during the spring, summer and fall in Europe. This specie of fungi is commonly known as the Stinkhorn mushroom. Its habitat is in most tropical countries. This fungus is known for its rancid stench and its tube like shape. This family of fungi is usually known as the Jelly fungi. They are parasites to other types of fungi. When its fruit bodies are produced, they have a jelly-like consistency. Cunninghamella echinulata
Mortierella
Conidiobolus
Basidiobolus
Apophysomyces
Syncephalastrum This species is commonly known as Bread Mould. It is recognizable by its dark or black structure. As it is known as bread mould, frankly its most common habitat is on and in bread, and on soft fruits like bananas. Unfortunately, this species can fully grow within only a few days, so you better keep an eye on your yeast! This type of fungi is usually seen in light shades of colour such as white and/or grey. Mucor is found in rotting foods like fruit, soil and plants. This fungus can cause many infections in different living organisms like frogs and humans. This species cannot however, grow in temperatures higher that 37 degrees. Common Structures Hyphae, which is a branch like structure that is fine with colourless threads as its body.
Hyphae is some what of a tangled mess called mycelium, and it is too small for the human eye to see without a microscope. They also tend to grow in a circular formation, hence the circle like shape on the top of a mushroom. Hyphae Mycelum Fungi also have a cell wall made of chitin, and they contain nuclei and cytoplasm.
Fungi can grow in whatever direction the please, and are able to live in dark places.
Finally, they contain root like structures called rhizoids which help the fungi attach to its substratum FUNGI = EUKARYOTIC Gas Exchange All Fungi are heterotrophic. They absorb organic carbon from the ground for the benefit of their growth.
Fungi are non photosynthetic.

Fungi do their gas exchange mostly underground, from the tiny air pockets that are found in the grounds soil. The fungus' hyphae absorbs the oxygen from the soil, rather than from above ground. However, once a fungi grows as a mushroom, or another growth, it will exchange gases from the outer atmosphere, in the same way as any other plant would do. YEAST Unlike the other types of fungi, yeasts gas exchange depends on its surrounding environment.
If oxygen is present, then the fungi will preform aerobic respiration, where it will absorb air and oxygen through its tiny pores.
On the other hand, if oxygaen and air are not available, the fungi will preform anaerobic respiration. This is where the fungi will absorb any available nutrients, which will cause fermentation.
Fermentation is when a chemical reaction occurs, causing an organic molecule to split into a simpler substance. In yeast, fermentation occurs to obtain energy, when sugar is converted into alcohol. Circulation The fungi kingdoms circulation system is made up of connecting hyphae. The fungus' nutrient exchange and water / nutrient absorption is assisted by the hyphae, which transport both throughout the fungus' "body". MULTI-CELLULAR Digestion Fungi digest their food through extracellular digestion. This means that instead of in taking their food, and then digesting it, they digest their food outside of their body, and then absorb it into its cells once digestion is complete. Fungi do not have stomachs to assist in digestion. Therefore, once the fungus' food is digested, it passes through the cell wall and is absorbed by its hyphae. The hyphae produces enzymes which assists in the breaking down of surrounding organic substances into smaller molecules that make absorption a lot easier. Reproduction SEXUAL REPRODUCTION When sexual reproduction occurs in the fungi kingdom, throughout the full process, the fungus nuclear membrane does stay intact. Saying this, through the process, the nucleus becomes thin or pinched at its midpoint. Also, its diploid chromosomes become pulled away from each other by the spindle fibres which are formed inside the nucleus. There are 3 stages of sexual reproduction in Fungi. Plasmogamy In this stage, two compatible haploid nuclei are brought together by the contents both of the cells contain. Therefore, during this stage, there are two different nuclear types in a cell at the same time, but the nuclei do not yet fuse together. Karyogamy In this stage, the haploid nuclei are now fused together, and the diploid nucleus formation occurs, (the zygote). This cell is the only cell in most fungus' life that is a diploid. This normally begins right after stage 1. Meiosis In this stage, the number of chromosomes is reduced to only one set for each individual cell. This stage also restores the haploid phase. Finally the meiosis stage produces haploid nuclei are incorporated in the fungus' spores which are called meiospores. ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION POSITIVE IMPACT Impact The fungi kingdom is beneficial to the overall environment. For example, fungi assist in the earths decomposition of things like dead animals and other types of deceased organic materials. By decomposing, fungi use these materials for food. This process also returns nutrients to the earths ground, which in most cases, provides necessities to other living organisms. NEGATIVE : DISEASE Fungi can have a very negative impact on human beings. This is because fungi can cause various simple, and severe diseases and infections. To begin, fungi can cause many skin irritations and infections such as Ring Worm along with Athletes Foot. Also, a type of yeast called candida albicans, is able to cause oral thrush, and some yeast infections found in women. Finally, fungi can also cause serious diseases which includes meningitis and other lung infections. Those are mostly caused by Cryptococcus neoformans. POSITIVE : DISEASE Although fungi have a very negative role when it comes to diseases, this kingdom also plays a positive role. Some fungus's are a main part of many medicines, Penicillin is a superb example of how fungi can help the human population from one generation to another. There are even cancer medications and anti-rejection medicine (surgery/transplants) that mainly come from fungi, YUM, FOOD Finally, if you're a mushroom lover, than you'd be happy to know that these too come from the fungi kingdom. This benefits the entire world because this kingdom has blessed us with a delicious food to enjoy not only on its own, but mixed into many other foods and meals as well. The zygospore fungus is often known as the dark, black marks on bread and other yeasts. The fungus' little dots is its reproductive structure. This phyla consists of many organisms that feed off of decaying organic matter (saprotrophs). Zygospores also keep sexual reproduction times of which are unfavourable. This phyla gets its name from diploid structures that are produced after two different haploid hyphae combine, and fuse their nuclei. These diploids are called "Zygospores." Syncephalastrum racemosum Absidia corymbifera This specie of fungi is known to ruin and spoil food. It feels like a wooly substance and tends to grow flat. This is a very rare influence on human zygomycosis. They are most commonly found in food dibris and also soil. Absidia corymbifera is the only known PATHOGEN from the other Absidia fungi. This species' habitat is known to be in the tropics and subtropic areas. It is mostly found on animal stool and in soil. This in order to produce zygospores, this fungi must have a mating strain. Syncephalastrum racemosum is associated with disease very rarely. This phyla includes the most popular types of fungi that are located on lawns, dead tree trunks and woodland floors. This fungi is very harmful and damages things such as corn husks and wheat. Club fungi is also not only just the mushroom you see above the ground. The fungus' hypae also spreads much further throughout the soil underground. This group gets its name from the basidiospores on the hyphae which are called basidia. Cyathus striatus Commonly known as the "birds nest fungi" because it appears to be much like a mini birds nest
Along with its nest like features, this fungi also has peridioles that look very similar to eggs. The peridioles are those that contain spores
Get its nutrition from rotting and decaying organic material
Grows in groups on things such as twigs and other woods
Found in low, moist areas throughout the world in the summer and the fall Sac fungi is the largest known group of fungi. It has little sacs which look like small fingers that are called Asci which are produced during sexual reproduction. However, its usual method of reproduction is to do so asexually. This group of fungi break down the materials that are harder to digest such as wood and bone. Gerronema Contains about 13 different species
Usually a tropical habitat, but have also been found in North American and Europe as well during the hot weather
Appear as a naval due to its funnel-shaped caps
Range from a small to a medium size Leotiomycetes This group of fungus is known for their ability to cause serious disease and damage to plants. Most of these fungi grow asci that are cylindrical without operculum. Venturia inaequalis This fungi causes "apple scab" amoung other living organisms. Its fruiting bodies are much like pseudothecia. They tend to embed themselves literally into its host plants tissue. Its life starts when suitable conditions begin in the summertime. Pilobolus This fungus goes through asexual reproduction, where they are eaten by a herbivorous animal, surviving through its digestive process, and living in their feces when all is done. Asexual reproduction occurs in fungi when conditions are favourable. Mitosis is often used by unicellular fungi, and mostly all fungi reproduce asexually by spores. During asexual reproduction, the fungus creates genetically identical organisms. In the fungi kingdom, asexual reproduction is the most common, and is used by most species. Each fungi has modified hyphae which produce spores needed for asexual reproduction. These spores are spread by organisms such as animals and insects, therefore spreading the fungi further among the lands and such. Imperfect Fungi
(Deuteromycotes) This phyla of fungi can only reproduce asexually, and therefore do not have a sexual reproduction phase. This is why this phyla is called imperfect. They develop mycilia from spores called CONDIA, just like the two other groups; basidiomycotes and ascomycotes. This phyla is very important to the human kind. Aspergillus niger This species of fungi is the cause of dark moulds on foods such as onions, penuts and some fruits. It is present in soils, and is sometimes reported to be found in the indoors. This species can also cause a serious lung disease if enough spores have been taken in by a human being. Tolypocladium inflatum Reproduces asexually
Produces the drug cyclosporin
This fungi also causes athletes foot Auricularia auricula-judae This fungi is known as the Jew's ear. This is because of its brown ear-like shape. It tends to grow on older wood, worldwide, and very common in Australia. Dermatophytes This fungi is the cause of Dermatophytosis, which is also mainly known as ringworm. This is a skin infecton commonly caught by humans and other animals such as cows. Some are able to to reproduce sexually. Puffball This fungus' most common type it the Lycoperdon perlatum. It is known to be a puffball because of its swelled, puffed shape. Most puffballs are not poisonous, but look similar to some deadly mushrooms. Mostly found throughout September to November. Entomophthora muscae This fungus causes a disease in flies, which leads to death. You will know that it is present in a house fly, if the organism has a descended abdomen, stretched wings and its legs are apart. There are atleast two kinds of Entomophthora muscae; large and small. Laetiporus This species is known as the sulpher shelf. Or the Chicken fungus, because since it is edible, people think it tastes like chicken. Each shelf will grow up to 10 inches in length, and some can weigh up to 100 pounds. Also, this fungi can be prepard for a meal, just the same as one would prepare a chicken. Fusarium This fungi is located in soil and is much associated with plants. Most fungi in this group are harmless to almost everything. To go along with that, it will only affect barley if it rains late in the season. It can also cause a small infection in humans nails. mb0804myco. (Producer). (2008). Reproduction of fungi. [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://mb0804mycology.wordpress.com/2008/07/29/reproduction-
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http://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/Zygomycota
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