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Castro Presentation

IB History of the Americas HL 2
by

Irene Kim

on 27 March 2013

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Transcript of Castro Presentation

Media & Propaganda Early Life and the Roots of Revolution "History Will Absolve Me" Works Cited Treatment of Minorities The Revolution Begins Born in Cuba in 1926
- attended a Jesuit boarding school for the majority of his youth
Pursued a career in law
- adopted political ideologies of nationalism, socialism, and anti-imperialism
Experiences as a lawyer allowed him to critically assess the social and economic disparities inherent in the structure of Cuban society Moncada – Castro and an armed group attacked the Moncada Army Barracks.
attack failed and Castro and his brother were captured.
Castro was put on trial
charged for attempting to organize an armed uprising.
History will Absolve Me
Castro led his own defense, used the publicity advantageously
delivered a speech in which he lamented about the problems in Cuba and how they could be solved
This speech (later published as a book) and his trial made him popular amongst the Cuban people.
Castro was found guilty, and was sentenced 15 years in prison. However, due to his popularity among the Cuban people, Castro was released after 2 years.
He Mexico and recruited other exiles opposed to Batista’s reign. He spent the next year organizing the "26th of July" Movement (based on the failed Moncada Barracks Attack. Rise and Rule of Fidel Castro Irene Kim, John So,
Sarah You
History of the Americas
Period 5 1947 - Due to his fervent belief in social justice, Castro joined the Cuban People’s Party - exacerbated his contempt for the state of the Cuban government
1952 – Castro became a candidate for the Cuban People’s Party for a position in Congress. During the campaign, however, General Fulgencio Batista, with support of the armed forces, seized power
1953 – Castro attempted to overthrow Batista by legal means, asserting that Batista had violated the principles of the Cuban Constitution
When the Cuban court refused to consider his plea, Castro concluded that the only way to acquire power under the Cuban People’s Party was through a revolution. Treatment of Women Women had few rights
-role resembled those in other patriarchal societies
-gender discrimination
-made up only 9.8% of the workforce
-few were teachers, secretaries, and nurses
-unskilled domestic servants
-many prostitutes
-abortion was illegal
-their role in the family was stressed
-sacrifice academic potential and health for the family Women before Castro (1959) Dealing with Opposition The Cuban Constitution of 1992
-guarantees rights and opportunities equal to those of men
-economic, political, cultural, and social fields, and in the family
The Labor Code
-equal rights and opportunities in all work fields
-equal pay
More Rights
-social security
-abortion Women's Rights Federation of Cuban Women tried to overthrow Batista to gain power
closed down opposition newspapers
put thousands of political opponents
in jail
made no move toward election
Castro established public tribunals to try the people responsible for killing the innocent
-estimated 600 people were executed -established 3 months after the revolution (1959)
-members
-over 85% of Cuban women
-73,710 branches in the country
-works for the rights of women and their implementation
-grass-roots level campaigns
-training centers for women to learn about their rights
-teach students to have non-sexist attitudes 1975 Family Code -equality in the home
-marriage, divorce, adoption, responsibility of children
-in their duties in the family
-housework
-raising children
-importance of the Cuban family and marriage citizens and press were strictly monitored
controlled the ideological propaganda machinery of Cuba
had neighborhood watch groups
- The Diary of Anne Frank was banned
wore military uniforms and made fiery speeches
-very long speeches
cult of personality was not as strong as the other dictators Economic Policies Female Education and Work -now almost 50% of the workforce is women
-professions in technical, medical, and scientific fields
women make up:
-72% of teachers
-66% of of professionals and technicians
-51% of doctors
-43% of scientists
-33% of managers
-70% of bank employees USA controlled the Cuban economy
depended heavily on sugar
1960, Castro nationalized all U.S.-owned businesses
- oil refineries, factories and casinos
US gov't refused to supply the technology and technicians needed to run Cuba's economy
- reduced their orders for Cuban sugar
partnered up with Soviet Union to provide support
- support ended once communism fell
1991, Cuba suffered an economic crisis
- sugar and tobacco production fell movement gained strength as Batista’s dictatorship continued to pressure the populace
When the guerrillas captured territory, they distributed it among the peasants
barbarity of Batista’s forces fostered more support for Castro.
Castro soon gained the support of the middle and upper classes. He indoctrinated soldiers in preparation for a guerrilla campaign that culminated in Castro's seizure of power in December 1958
The loss of popular support and Castro's attacks destabilized Batista's regime and led to its collapse
The revolution had succeeded Counter-Revolutionary People Committees for the Defense of the Revolution (CDR)
-purpose: report counter-revolutionary activities of people in their assigned blocks
Military Units to Aid Production (UMAPs)
-labor camps established in 1965
-social deviants=counter-revolutionary people like Jehovah Witnesses and homosexuals
-placed in these camps to limit their influences
-executions
-camps had to close in 1967
Political Prisoners
-jailed due to counter-revolutionary crimes Turn to Communism Despite Castro's reputation as a left-wing nationalist, there was no indication that his regime would be communist
The Eisenhower administration inaugurated Castro's rise to prominence with "cautious optimism"
formally recognized the new government, hoping to establish lasting political, economic, and cultural ties with Cuba that would ensure the presence of an ally in Havana
1959-1960 - Castro implemented many radical changes within Cuba - nationalized American businesses in Cuba and collectivized agriculture
Castro also showed willingness to foster positive relations with the Soviet Union
By the election of 1960 - American government regarded Castro as a dangerous revolutionary Treatment of Minorities Religious Groups Foreign Policy First Agrarian Reform Law
limited sizes of land holdings, forbade foreign property ownership
Relations with the Soviet Union
established diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union, trade agreement
Bay of Pigs Invasion (1961)
unsuccessful military invasion of Cuba - failed
demonstrated growing tension between U.s. and Cuba
failed invasion strengthened position of Castro's administration -- openly proclaimed their intention to adopt socialism and foster positive relations with the Soviet Union
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
confrontation between the United States and Soviet Union - one of the major confrontations of the Cold War
deployment of missiles in Cuba would deter potential U.s. nuclear attack on the Soviet Union
Castro wanted to retaliate for the Bay of Pigs invasion, approved Khrushchev's plan to place missiles in Cuba
illustrated Cuba's positive relations with the Soviet Union and increasing hostility with the U.S. Cuba's declared religion: Atheist
-Ministry of the Interior
-agents spied on people who practiced other religions
-surveillance and harassment
Government Restriction of Religions
-construction of churches blocked
-no recognition of new denominations
-private churches shut down
-some religious leaders were imprisoned
1992-Loosened Restrictions
-Cuba was now said to be secular rather than atheist
-Catholics could join the Cuban Communist Party Castro leading his fellow revolutionaries in Sierra Maestra in 1959 Castro with members of his leftist guerrilla movement "26th of July"
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