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'Roaring Twenties'

OCR GCSE History B: USA, 1919-1941
by

David Rawlings

on 21 October 2013

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Transcript of 'Roaring Twenties'

How far did US society change in the 1920s?
Learning Objectives

Know: the ways in which US society changed in the 1920s.

Understand: the extent of the change.

Skills: to what extent...
Focus Points
a. what were the 'Roaring Twenties'?
b. how widespread was intolerance in US society?
c. why was prohibition introduced and later repealed?
d. how far did the roles of women change in the 1920s?
How did life change in the 1920s?
Jazz cafe
Cinema
Sports
Radio
Growing cities
Morals
Cars
Task: create a mind map or flow chart showing changes in US society in the 1920s.
Starting thought:

Imagine you've had little or no pleasures in life.
Suddenly you have:
radio
cinema
jazz
cafes
cars
spectator sports

How would your life change?
The information you need is pinned at stations around the room.
You have 20 minutes.
Discussion Point:

In pairs analyse this picture of Broadway, New York in the 1920s.

What does it show you about how US society had changed?
All [C]: can describe some changes in US society in the 1920s.
Most [B]: can begin to explain the impact of those changes.
Some [A]: can develop an explanation of those changes.
'Roaring Twenties'
How far did the lives of women change in the 1920s?
How can we improve our 10 mark answers?
Learning Objective:

Using connectives and historical evidence to develop 10 mark answers!
Bronze
: Can describe changes and limitations for women - i.e. listing evidence.
Silver
: Can explain the changes/limitations by using evidence.
Gold
: Can compare evidence for changes/limitations to judge the extent of change for women.
C/D
B
A
Can you match up the numbers:
100 million
150 million
44.2
60 million
45 million
Average no. of hours worked per week.
Value of Radio network NBC in 1929.
No. of cinema tickets sold per week in America in 1929.
No. of Americans living in towns in 1929.
No. of American's living in the country in 1929.
Task:

1. Using workbook p.23 and textbook p.354-355draw up a list of IMPROVEMENTS and LIMITATIONS for women in the 1920s.
2. Complete questions - p.24-25.
Homework Check:
How well did you do?
What could you do better next time?
This is Susie the flapper.
What has changed for her in the 1920s?
THINK / PAIR / SHARE
Four prize winners in an annual beauty show, Washington Bathing Beach, Washington, D.C., 1922
Welcome to Rawlings' Rum Running Speakeasy...

Come in for a casual drink and a good time... just don't tell the law!
Use the textbook to look up these words:

PROHIBITION
SPEAKEASY
TEMPERANCE
ANTI-SALOON LEAGUE
VOLSTEAD ACT
You need to earn drinks in the speakeasy.
You earn a drink by answering a question well.
5 drinks and you are officially sozzled - you will get to spend the night passed out in the backroom of the speakeasy.
Task:
Use the textbook p.364-5 to help you...

1. Explain why was prohibition introduced?

6 marks.

Remember to follow the yellow brick road... because, because, because.
10 minutes
Learning Objectives:

Know: what prohibition was.
Understand: why prohibition was introduced.
Skills: Independent investigation.
Bar Skittles:
If this is the answer, what is the question?
Prohibition
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Speakeasy
Temperance
Anti-Saloon League
Volstead Act
21 states
Dries
KEY WORDS
What is the message of this cartoon?
BAR
Children
Bronze: Can describe reasons for prohibition.
Silver: Can explain why prohibition was introduced, using key words.
Gold: Can assess the flaws in the introduction of prohibition.
C/D
B
A
http://www.history.com/topics/prohibition/videos#america-goes-dry-with-prohibition
Ban on manufacture, transportation and sale of alcohol.
An illegal bar. Often disguised as a funeral parlour or cafe.
A Christian social movement against alcohol.
One of the Christian groups responsible for the temperance movement.
The 18th amendment to the US constitution. The act that banned alcohol.
Learning Objectives:

K: The changes for native Americans
U: The positive nature of these changes
S: AfL - marking an exam-style answer
Bronze: Can describe changes for native Americans
Silver: Can explain the limitations still in place
Gold: Can judge the extent of change for native Americans
C/D
B
A
How positive were the changes for native Americans in the 1920s?
Who am I?
I was born in America in 1595.
My Christian name was Rebecca.
I married John Rolfe in 1615.
I became something of a celebrity and travelled to England in 1617.
I learned English is captivity - it was not my native language.
I was from the Powhatan tribe.
Who am I, with a name beginning with P?
Task:
To mark two exam-style 6 mark answers and explain WWW & EBI.
Success Criteria:
Use the mark scheme as a guide.
Remember - because, because, because...
Add detailed feedback to explain how these could be improved.
Explain why people tried to change the lives of native Americans in the 1920s.
6 marks
They were given US citizenship, which meant that they could vote and have a say on who governed america. 12,000 of them had served in the army during WW1, which helped change people's attitudes to them. In the 1920s the US government did a survey which discovered that most of them lived in poverty, were in worse health, had worse education and lower paid jobs than white Americans.
Answer 1
Answer 2
People tried to change the lives of native Americans for three main reasons.
First the native Americans had been forced to assimilate into white American culture. People were concerned that this was destroying native American culture and had become known as 'the vanishing Americans'.

Secondly, 12,000 native Americans had fought for the USA in WW1. Their effort in the war made many people sympathise with the native Americans.

Finally, widespread reforms were brought in by Roosevelt's New Deal in 1934.
Explain why people tried to change the lives of native Americans in the 1920s.
6 marks
Now have a go at this question for yourself!
Know: Good and bad aspects to life as a black person in 1920s USA.
Understand: The extent of intolerance towards black people.
Skills: 4 mark questions
How widespread was black intolerance in the 1920s?
Listen to the song –try and pick out the lyrics.
Write down any lyrics you hear.
Think about intolerance towards black people.





What do you think the lives of African-Americans were like?
How widespread was black intolerance in the 1920s?
15mins
Read through Walsh pp.359-361, list all the good and bad experiences of Black Americans in the 1920s.



lynchings, (thousands were lynched in the South)



Cultural –Jazz, Harlem Renaissance. Individuals like Robeson
Bad
Victims of prejudice and discrimination,
Jim Crow Laws,
lynchings, (thousands were lynched in the South)
segregation,
KKK
Even in the North the problems continue as they become the targets of poor whites in the cities.
Ghettoes develop, segregation continues and there is violence from gangs of whites
Still lower pay, higher rents, lower life expectancy and poverty
Good
Political improvements.
UNIA-Garvey and the Back To Africa movement.
Honours system, help to set up black businesses.
NAACP under DuBois had 90,000 members and campaigned to end segregation
Blacks move to the North and have better jobs.
A middle class begins to emerge with own businesses
Howard University set up for Blacks
Cultural –Jazz, Harlem Renaissance. Individuals like Robeson
Experiences of Black Americans in 1920’s
15mins
EXAM ALERT!

Two questions on p.21 of work books:

What was the Ku Klux Klan? [4marks]
What problems did black people face in the USA during the 1920s? [4marks]
How widespread was black intolerance in the 1920s?
Are these typical images of the 1920s?

How widespread was black intolerance in the 1920s?
Bronze: Can describe intolerance towards Black Americans
Silver: Can judge good and bad aspects of life for Black Americans
Gold: Can assess the extent of intolerance towards Black Americans
C/D
B
A
Learning Objectives:
Good
Bad
TASK:
How widespread was black intolerance in the 1920s?
What will make this a good piece of work?

Success criteria:
Work in pairs to find the answers.
Colour-code good and bad aspects so they are clearer in your book.
Read through everything once, then skim read to pick out good or bad points.
Read through Walsh pp.359-361, list all the good and bad experiences of Black Americans in the 1920s.
TASK:
Why did Prohibition fail?
What do you think is happening in this picture?
Know: Role of prohibition officers, gangsters, bootleggers and speakeasies.
Understand: Reasons for the failure of prohibition.
Skills: 10 mark questions - on the one hand, on the other hand...
Bronze: Can describe ways prohibition was enforced
Silver: Can explain failures to enforce prohibition
Gold: Can make a judgement on how well it was enforced, using specific historical evidence
C/D
B
A
Learning Objectives:
While you watch this video look for answers these questions:
When was prohibition introduced and why?
Who enforced prohibition and how?
What were the consequnces of prohibition?
Why did Prohibition fail?
Speakeasies
Organised crime
Bootleggers and rum runners
Deaths from alcohol
Cost to enforce
TASK: create a mind-map to show why prohibition failed.

Success Criteria:
Use p.365-368 to help you;
Use the headings above as a guide;
Think about what the most important reason for the failure was;
Colour-code and include pictures to help prompt your memory.
In my opinion, the rise in organised crime was the most important reason for the failure of prohibition.

This is becasue...

a. Gangsters made a lot of money out of prohibition, were able to supply the huge demand for liquor and were very expensive and difficult for the enforcement officers to stop.

b. Al Capone was a ruthless leader who attacked and killed 7 members of Bugsy Moran's rival gang on St Valentine's Day 1929.

c. Gangsters would bribe the enforcement officers, local government officials and police.
10 mark style - Which sentence fits best?
On the other hand, it could be argued that corruption was a key reason for the failure of prohibition.

This is because...

a. It was very easy to find speakeasies in major cities. Izzy Einstein issued a report saying that, on average it took him 15minutes to find somewhere to get a drink in a new city.

b. Agents seized over 280,000 stills during prohibition.

c. Many of the law enforcement officers were involved in the liquor trade or turned a blind eye. Big breweries stayed in business during the prohibition era by bribing local government officials, enforcement officers and police.
By now you should know:
1920s intolerance towards: women; immigrants; politics; Native Americans; Black Americans; Alcohol.
Reasons for the introduction and failure of prohibition.
How 'free and fair' the USA was in the 'Roaring Twenties'.
Check your understanding!
'Roaring Twenties' - review & assessment
Learning Objectives:

K: Typical experiences of Black Americans in the 1920s
U: How to use MOD to analyse a source
S: MOD - source skills
Bronze: Can use the source to identify what it suggests about Black Americans
Silver: Can use own knowledge to explain the experience of Black Americans
Gold: Can evaluate the reliability and limitations of the source based on how far it agrees with your own knowledge.
C/D
B
A
What is the message of this cartoon?
M
"The main message of the cartoon is... "
Finished
Own Knowledge
Look at all details in the cartoon.
Think about who it is FOR or AGAINST.
This will help you to identify the
message
the cartoonist was trying to make.
Details from the cartoon
Take 2 minutes to identify the message
Message
Identify the message.
What do you know that supports this message?
Think about:
The characters involved;
The date of the cartoon.
What details in the cartoon also support your message?
Be OBSERVANT!
Look at every detail and read the caption if there is one.
This should be a clear political message.
Well done!
You're now an expert at evaluating cartoons!
Now practice, practice, practice!
[7 marks]
D
Was this experience typical of the experiences of Black Americans in the 1920s?
Have a look at source 47 on p.360.
What is the message of this source and how accurate is it?

Let's use MOD to work out the message!
M
"The main message of the source is... "
Finished
Own Knowledge
Look at all details in the cartoon.
Think about who it is FOR or AGAINST.
This will help you to identify the
message
the cartoonist was trying to make.
Details from the source
Take 2 minutes to identify what the source tells you
Message
Identify the message.
What do you know that supports this message?
Does your own knowledge agree with the source?
Think about:
The people involved;
The date of the source.
What details in the source support your message?
Be OBSERVANT!
Look at every detail and read the caption if there is one.
Make sure you are clear on what the source shows you!
Well done!
You're now an expert at evaluating sources!
Now practice, practice, practice!
[7 marks]
D
What does it tell you?
What point is it trying to make?
'From my own knowledge, I know that...'
'Black Americans were treated...'
'The message is shown in the source by the...'
Review:
Swap your answer with the person next to you.
Use
3 colours
to highlight the Message, Own Knowledge and Details from the source.
Have they used MOD?
Did they do well?
Give your partner WWW and EBI feedback.
Twenties Bingo
1920
Volstead Act
Ku Klux Klan
bootleggers
Communists
Temperance
Harlem Renaissance
prohibition
Speakeasy
Dries
The real McCoy
Al Capone
'Flapper Girls'
How do we structure a 10 mark question?

Think/Pair/Share
Connectives
Task: In your groups, identify 5 connectives for each part of your 10 mark answer, i.e. introduction, one/other hand, conclusion.
Task: Add evidence to support each side of the answer.
Use these points to help you:
Traditions - most women seen as housewives and mothers
Job opportunities - 24% employment
New freedoms - smoking, drinking, flapper girls, morals, chaperones
Women paid less for same jobs
Politics - although they could vote, women were not represented in government
Scopes Monkey Trial - Q&A:

When was the monkey trial?
Who was Scopes?
Where did he live?
Why was he on trial?
What was the outcome of the trial?
Monkey Trial Hot Seat!

Roles:
Johnny Scopes
Judge
Prosecution lawyer
Defence lawyer
Judge
Jury
Learning Objectives:

Judge the extent of political intolerance in the 1920s.
Bronze: Can describe political intolerance, including the case of Sacco and Vazetti.
Silver: Can explain how and why the USA was politically intolerant.
Gold: Can judge the validity of American intolerance of radical political ideas.
C/D
B
A
Were Sacco and Vanzetti guilty?
What happened to Sacco and Vanzetti?
Anarchists
Task: In pairs make out a case to show that Sacco and Vanzetti were innocent / guilty.
Success Criteria:
Read through the evidence carefully;
Make a judgement on whether they were innocent or guilty;
Use the evidence to help prove your judgement.
'Sacco & Vanzetti were guilty.'
NO
YES
DEBATE
TASK: Answer these questions in your book:

What was the Red Scare?
Why did Americans fear radicalism?
How justified was the Red Scare?
Why was this poster published in 1918?
POD Questions
P
O
D
urpose - 'This poster was published because...'
wn knowledge - 'I know this is the purpose because...'
etails from the source - 'This purpose is clear from the source because...'
Full transcript