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Transcript of Rock Cycle
ROCK Most rocks are made of minerals. Rocks can be put into three basic rock types: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. How a rock is formed determines which group it is placed in. The Rock Cycle is a
continuous change of rocks
from one type to another. The lithosphere is the rigid
outer shell of the Earth
(including the crust and
the upper mantle) where
rocks move through the rock
cycle. 70% of all rocks on Earth are sedimentary
Rich in fossils
Formed when flat layers of sediment are pressed together by:
gluing of sediments by minerals dissolved in water (cementation)
tight pressure placed on lower layers of sediment by the weight of layers above (compaction)
Most form under water Often has layers, flat or curved
Usually composed of pieces cemented or pressed together
Has great color variety
Particle size may be the same or vary
Usually has pores between pieces MAGMA SEDIMENT Heat and Pressure Melting Melting Cooling Weathering and
Erosion Compaction and
Cementation Heat and Pressure Weathering and
Erosion Weathering and
Erosion Intrusive igneous rocks form when magma slowly cools deep under Earth's surface.
Extrusive igneous rocks from when lava quickly cools near or above Earth's surface.
Igneous rocks often contain crystals (large or small, depending on cooling speed) Examples: Rocks may undergo a process several times or rocks may change between two forms without ever becoming all three forms. Oldest type of all rocks
Means "fire rock"
cooling and solidifying magma underground (pockets of magma cool slowly)
cooling and solidifying lava above ground (volcanoes erupt and lava cools quickly) Molten rock beneath the earth's crust Properties: Magma is called lava when it reaches the earth's surface. Phase transformation of a substance from solid to liquid Solidification of magma or lava Examples: Shale Properties: Small pieces of rocks, shells, or the remains of plants and animals that have been carried along and deposited by wind, water, or ice. Breaking down of rocks into smaller particles by the action of water, the atmosphere, and organisms Part of the lithification process where sediments lose porosity due to progressive pressure and layering Hardening of sediments by precipitation of mineral matter in pore spaces Sediments undergo sedimentation, or the process that causes minerals and organic particles to settle and accumulate. Process by which soil and rock are removed from the Earth's surface by wind, water, ice, or gravity and transported and deposited in other locations Metamorphic means "change" and "form"
Form deep inside Earth when existing rocks (sedimentary or igneous rocks) are subjected to extreme heat and pressure May have alternate bands of light and dark minerals
May have layers of visible crystals
Usually made of mineral crystals of different sizes
May have bent or curved foliation (lines or layers) Examples: Properties: The effect of a force applied to a surface Energy transferred from one system to another by thermal interaction Heat inside the Earth comes from magma. Pressure comes from layers of rock piled on top of layers and layers of rocks beneath Earth's surface. Heat inside the Earth comes from magma. Pressure comes from layers of rock piled on top of layers and layers of rocks beneath Earth's surface. Anything can happen within the rock cycle! Click along the other arrows to discover the different paths rocks can take through the