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EOCT Review

American Literature EOCT Review
by

Rebecca Kuitems

on 15 August 2013

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Transcript of EOCT Review

DOMAIN IV: Writing
DOMAIN II: Vocabulary
DOMAIN III: Conventions
American Literature EOCT
Notes
Drama
Influences on American Literature
EOCT will ask you to:
organize a writing sample
demonstrate ability to convey information and ideas from primary and secondary sources
use research and technology to support writing
use the writing process to develop, revise, and evaluate writing
DOMAIN I: Reading and
American Literature
Passages
Literary Terms to Know
doodles
Poetry
Drama
You will be presented with a selection from the following passages:
-Essay
-Official Documents
-Biography/Autobiography
-Expository (informational)
-Narrative (fiction/nonfiction)
-Speech
-Poem
-Drama
Literary Devices:
Alliteration
Flashback
Foreshadowing
Hyperbole
Irony
Metaphor (regular/extended)
Onomatopoeia
Paradox
Literary Devices (continued)
Personification
Pun
Refrain
Repetition
Simile
Symbol
Tone
Understatement
Fiction: Terms to Know
Chronological: story is arranged in order of time from beginning to end
Epistolary Novel: novel written in the form of letters, journals, diary entries, etc.
Frame Narrative: story told within a story
In medias res: Latin for "in the middle of things." The novel begins with a significan moment, this style uses
flashbacks
to fill in the details.
You will be asked to relate American Literature to the following:
historical setting
other works of fiction/nonfiction
Greek/Roman myths - roots of literature
Poetry Terms
to Know
Rhyme
End Rhyme
Internal Rhyme
Slant Rhyme
Consonance
Assonance
Rhyme Scheme
Blank Verse
Fixed Form
Free Form
Subject Matter
Narrative - tells a story
Ballad - narrative poem, folk origin, intended to be sung
Lyric - expresses a person's thoughts or feelings
Poetry and Figurative Language
These types of figurative language are often found in poetry but can be found in many genres of literature:
allusion
conceit
metonymy
synecdoche
Drama Terms to know:
Tragedy
Comedy
Political Drama
Modern Drama
Theatre of the Absurd
Dramatic conventions
Standard 1: Identify, analyze, and apply knowledge of the structures and characteristics of American fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and drama and provide evidence from the work to support understanding.
Standard 2: Identifies, analyzes, and applies knowledge of theme in a work of American Literature and provides evidence from the work to support understanding.
Terms and Ideas to KNOW
Main Idea
Theme
Universal Theme
Big Ideas
American Individualism
American Dream
Cultural Diversity
Tolerance
Native American Period
pre-1620 - 1840
Modernism
1900-1950
1650
1800
1850
1900
Colonial Period
1620-1750
Revolutionary Period
1750-1815
Transcendentalism
1800-1855
Realism Period
1850-1900
1950
Naturalism
1880-1940
1700
1750
?
Possible Questions on Literary Periods:
Which detail from the passage informs the reader of the time period?
The poem is characteristic of which period in American Literature?
Which Characteristics of the Modern Period are found both in the story and the poem?
Identifying Style Devices
Example of a style device:
Tone- overall sense of author's attitude toward the subject matter
What are the tones in the following paragraphs:
The woman trudged through the heavy snow, struggling against the wind, her face shielded by a thick gray scarf. She kept her face down, her eyelids nearly closed, dark slits in a pale white face. Her shoulders sagged as if laden with a heavy burden, yet her arms were empty.

The woman danced across the snow, her feet barely leaving prints, her arms lifted upward, embracing the wind.

She flung back her head and tossed her red hat into the air, lifting her face into the driving snow and allowing the snowflakes to caress her skin.
Identifying New Vocabulary
Literary Periods
Questions for this standard will ask you to understand and acquire new vocabulary terms that are appropriate for high school students
Be familiar with the following terms:
Idioms:
phrases or expressions peculiar to a particular language:
Ex: a person who looks like
the cat who swallowed the canary
is satisfied with something that has happened. She has not literally swallowed a canary.
Cognates:
words that have the same origin or are related in some way to words in other languages:
Ex:
Night
- English

Noche
- Spanish

Nuit
- French
Denotation
: dictionary definition of a word
Connotation
: meaning or idea associated with a word
Ex:
Laugh and giggle
have similar denotations; however, the word giggle has a youthful connotations. We associate "
giggle
" with children and not adults.
acquire new vocabulary in each content area and use it correctly
establish a context for information acquired by reading across subject area
evaluate the messages and effects of mass media
CONTEXT CLUES
Test Taking Tips
Read the question FIRST, then read the passage, THEN read the answer choices.
Why?
This lets you know what you should be focusing on. Theme? Grammar? Literary period? Etc.
This also helps you “participate” in the question
“participating” helps keep you from having to keep rereading the passage over and over.
Try to answer the question before you look at the answers. Do any of the answers look similar to the answer you came up with?
Once you have determined what the questions will be about for each passage, if you have the ability to write on your test, take notes.
Underline things that you feel are important. Annotate the passage as you go.
Who is the speaker? What could the theme be? What is the setting?
Eliminate the wrong answers!
Your testing sheet is never graded. Put an X over answers that aren’t right. Put a ? next to ones that appear right.
This helps you narrow down the possible choices to give you a better chance. (Educated Guessing)
When tackling vocabulary questions
Use context clues to figure out a word’s meaning. What in the sentence can help you figure out the meaning?
Use the +/- strategy.
Determine if your word has a positive or negative sway.
Then try to see if any of the answers have a positive or negative sway. This will help you eliminate words that aren’t correct.
Context Clues
Eliminate Wrong Answers
Preview the Questions
For example:
The landlady likes to
meddle
in her tenant’s affairs.
Help
Judge
Interfere
Dissolve
Use what you know to be true in your life to help you answer questions
What is a landlady? A tenant?
What is their relationship like?
What does the word “affair” generally relate to?
Is that something someone would want their landlady to know about?
Try putting the vocabulary choices into the blank
Does the sentence make sense? If not, that’s probably not your answer
Use root words to help you determine words you don’t know:
Astrophysics
Astro-
(astronaut, astrology, astronomy)= what do these words have in common?
Phys-
(physical, physician) = what do these words have in common?
"Space" + "body"
Vocabulary Help
DON’T leave a question blank.
You have a 100% chance of getting an unanswered question wrong.
you have a 25% chance of guessing and getting the question wrong.
Answer Questions
When you encounter grammar questions, use the same tricks that you do for vocabulary:
Substitute in each answer to see if they fit
Eliminate answers that you KNOW are grammatically incorrect.
Remember to think about the way a stuffy old Englishman would speak, not the way you would say something. (To whom will I be sending this? v.s. Who do I send this to?)
Grammar
How a word is used can determine its meaning. If the context of the word changes, the meaning of the word changes. This change can be very basic, such as a word being used as a noun in once sentence and a verb in the next.
ex: That is a lovely
set
of dinner plates.
Please
set
the plates on the table.
Sometimes the change in meaning is more subtle:
I
shrieked
when I won a million dollars.
I
shrieked
when I saw the mouse.
Empathize:
good readers usually try to understand characters better by empathizing
identifying with their thoughts and feelings
Empathizing with characters helps stories come alive and gives insight into character motivations
Content Context
Meanings of words change from subject to subject:
Definition of
revolution
in history vs. science
Tips
Mass Media
Radio
TV
Newspapers,
Magazines
Web sites
Channels through which Americans receive information. Taken together, these all create "mass media"
Modes
of
Rhetoric
1. Narration
2. Descriptions
3. Persuasion
4. Exposition
Types
of
Arguments
1. argument by authority
2. argument by emotion
3. argument by logic
On the test:
apply knowledge about grammar, usage, and style to create an organized writing sample that:
engages the reader
maintains a coherent focus
signals closure
Tested on a variety of passages
letters, reports, journals, essays, and newspaper articles
Finding the Main Idea
Main idea is found in the:
title
thesis statement
conclusion
Subordinate, or supporting, ideas can be found:
topic sentence of each paragraph
body paragraphs
EVERY paper needs evidence:
supports the main and subordinate ideas
Evidence includes
anecdotes
descriptions
facts
statistics
EOCT questions will look like:
Which sentence does NOT fit with the main idea?
Which sentence is the BEST thesis for this passage?
Identify and use Rhetorical Devices
Parallelism
Repetition
Analogy
repetition of similar parts of a sentence
part of parallelism when you repeat words or phrases throughout a literary piece
like a simile, compares two items. Likely more extensive than a simile
Where do you come up with evidence?
Research and technology
Steps in the research process
1. Decide topic
2. Refine thesis
3. Locate primary and secondary sources
Paraphrasing
Main Idea
Organizing
Note cards
anecdotal scripting
annotated bibliography
other forms:
outline, chart, graph, etc.
-historical context
-major authors
-structure/style
-themes/authors' focus
A Dream Deferred
by Langston Hughes

What happens to a dream deferred?
Does it dry up
like a raisin in the sun?
Or fester like a sore--
And then run?
Does it stink like rotten meat?
Or crust and sugar over--
like a syrupy sweet?

Maybe it just sags
like a heavy load.

Or does it explode?
Context Clues Example:
When I came home, I took off my
kerflugen
and massaged my aching feet.

A. hat
B. shoes
C. purse
D. sweater
She lost the debate because her argument was
untumerous
and unorganized.

A. nonsensical
B. well-researched
C. joking
D. established
Documenting Sources
bibliography vs. works cited
Steps in the Writing Process
1. Prewriting
2. Drafting
3. Revising and Editing
4. Proofreading
5. Publishing
Postmodernism
(1950-present)
Romanticism
(1800-1865)
Full transcript